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Guidelines Part 3 Contents

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMS

G3.1 Occupational health and safety program
G3.1-2 Farm labour contractors and growers
G3.2 "Less formal" occupational health and safety (OHS) programs

CORRECTION OF UNSAFE CONDITIONS

G3.11 Emergency circumstances

REFUSAL OF UNSAFE WORK

G3.12 Refusal of unsafe work

OCCUPATIONAL FIRST AID — Added March 30, 2004

G3.14 to G3.21 First aid guidelines for employers
G3.14 First aid attendant certification, qualifications and general responsibilities
G3.16 First aid assessment
G3.17 Developing and implementing first aid procedures
G3.17(1)-1 Implementing an early defibrillation program in the workplace [Withdrawn November 1, 2010]
G3.18(1) Communications
G3.18(2) Availability of first aid attendant
G3.19 First aid records
G3.20 Multiple employer workplaces
G3.21 Suspension and cancellation of first aid certificates

FIRST AID SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS — Added March 30, 2004

Assigned hazard rating list
Types of first aid attendants and training programs
First aid kits: Recommended minimum contents
First aid facilities: Recommended minimum criteria
Emergency vehicles and equipment

YOUNG OR NEW WORKERS

G3.23 Young or new worker orientation and training

Guidelines Part 3 - Occupational health and safety programs

G3.1 Occupational health and safety program

Issued March 30, 2004; Revised October 26, 2005; Revised May 17, 2006; Editorial Revision February 1, 2008; Editorial Revision February 12, 2009

Regulatory excerpt
Section 3.1 of the OHS Regulation ("Regulation") states:

3.1 (1) An occupational health and safety program as outlined in section 3.3 must be initiated and maintained

(a) by each employer that has

(i) a workforce of 20 or more workers, and

(ii) at least one workplace that is determined under section 3.16(2)(b) to create a moderate or high risk of injury, or

(b) by each employer that has a workforce of 50 or more workers.

(1.1) If subsection (1)(a) or (b) applies to the employer, the occupational health and safety program applies to the whole of the employer's operations.

(2) Despite subsection (1) an occupational health and safety program may be required in any workplace when, in the opinion of an officer, such a program is necessary.

Purpose of guideline
The purpose of this guideline is to provide criteria for counting workers in an employer's workforce for considering whether an occupational health and safety ("OHS") program is required under section 3.1(1); provide WorkSafeBC prevention officers with factors to consider when exercising their discretion under section 3.1(2); discuss benefits of OHS programs; and reference available information on occupational health and safety management systems.

Criteria for counting workers for the purpose of section 3.1(1)
In determining the number of workers for the purpose of section 3.1(1), the following workers should be considered part of the employer's workforce, regardless of how they or their employers define their status:

  • Workers employed for more than one month
  • Workers who are employed for less than one month, but have worked for the employer periodically.

Note: Other sections of the Regulation and Workers Compensation Act ("Act") also have requirements that relate to the number of workers. For criteria for counting workers for other requirements, see also

Considerations for prevention officers when exercising their discretion under section 3.1(2)
In addition to those employers who are required to initiate and maintain an OHS program under section 3.1(1), some other types of employers should also initiate and maintain health and safety programs. Section 3.1(2) provides that an OHS program may be required in any workplace when, in the opinion of a prevention officer, such a program is necessary.

A prevention officer who encounters a situation where all of the following conditions are present should consider requiring the employer to initiate and maintain an OHS program pursuant to section 3.1(2) of the Regulation:

  • The employer has a workforce of less than 20 workers
  • Those workers are exposed to high risks
  • An OHS program is essential to the health and safety of workers.

In deciding whether to require an OHS program in the above situation, the prevention officer should consider whether such a program could be effectively initiated and maintained by the employer for each workplace where work is being performed for the benefit of that employer.

Benefits of an OHS program for all workplaces
Even though an employer may not be required to initiate and maintain an OHS program, OHS programs can provide a number benefits. For example, OHS programs enable an employer to control its occupational health and safety risks, improve health and safety performance, communicate its health and safety commitments and policies to staff, and provide a framework for attaining its health and safety goals and objectives. Further, OHS programs assist with implementation by delineating roles, responsibilities, and accountability for tasks, including checking and corrective action as the program evolves. A properly implemented OHS program can be expected to reduce injuries and the associated costs of disability and lost production hours.

Occupational health and safety management systems
Whether for a small or large employer, occupational health and safety can be managed in the same way that the employer manages other facets of the organization's activities (e.g. quality, production, environment, finances customer service etc). An occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) can help organizations reduce or prevent injuries, illnesses and fatalities in the workplace by providing a framework for corporate behaviour in OHS management. An OHSMS relies on commitment, leadership and worker participation to achieve its outcomes. CSA Z1000-06 Occupational Health and Safety Management is a consensus-based Canadian national standard for occupational health and safety management, created by labour, business, and government representatives. The standard is structured using the Plan-Do-Check-Act approach also used in other management system standards (e.g. ANSI/AIHA Z10-2005, ILO-OSH 2001, OHSAS 18001-1999 and ISO 14001:2004). CSA Z1000-06 includes the following elements:

  • Commitment, Leadership and Participation
    Establishment and maintenance of an OHS Policy
    Roles, responsibilities and accountability for worker and employer representatives
  • Plan
    Incorporation of applicable legal and other requirements
    Hazard identification; risk assessment
    Documentation of OHS objectives and targets
  • Do
    Preventive and protective measures to address identified hazards
    and risks
    Emergency prevention, preparedness, and response
    Competence and training
    Communication and awareness
    Procurement and contracting
    Management of change
    Documentation (document and records control)
  • Check
    Monitoring and measurement of OHS performance and system effectiveness
    Incident investigation and analysis
    Internal audit of OHSMS
    Preventive and corrective action
  • Act
    Management review and continual improvement

All of the elements of the standard are intended to be incorporated into an OHSMS but the extent of the application will depend on the circumstances particular to each organization, such as the nature and location of its operations and the conditions in which it functions.

While not a requirement under the Regulation, WorkSafeBC recommends the use of OHS management systems and endorses CSA Z1000-06 for use by employers in BC.

G3.1-2 Farm labour contractors and growers - Responsibilities and OHS programs

Issued July 5, 2007; Editorial Revision February 1, 2008; Editorial Revision January 1, 2009; Editorial Revision consequential to August 4, 2015 Regulatory Amendments

Regulatory excerpt
Responsibilities for worker health and safety are established by the Workers Compensation Act ("Act") and the OHS Regulation ("Regulation"). Farm labour contractors are considered to be the employers of the farm workers they provide to agricultural operations. As such they have responsibilities under the Act, for example in section 115. They also have responsibilities under the Regulation, for example for occupational health and safety programs under section 3.1.

Section 115 of the Act states:

115 General duties of employers

(1)Every employer must:

(a) ensure the health and safety of

(i) all workers working for that employer, and

(ii) any other workers present at a workplace at which that employer's work is being carried out, and

(b) comply with this Part, the regulations and any applicable orders.

(2) Without limiting subsection (1), an employer must

(a) remedy any workplace conditions that are hazardous to the health or safety of the employer's workers,

(b) ensure that the employer's workers

(i) are made aware of all known or reasonably foreseeable health or safety hazards to which they are likely to be exposed by their work,

(ii) comply with this Part, the regulations and any applicable orders, and

(iii) are made aware of their rights and duties under this Part and the regulations,

(c) establish occupational health and safety policies and programs in accordance with the regulations,

(d) provide and maintain in good condition protective equipment, devices and clothing as required by regulation and ensure that these are used by the employer's workers,

(e) provide to the employer's workers the information, instruction, training and supervision necessary to ensure the health and safety of those workers in carrying out their work and to ensure the health and safety of other workers at the workplace,

(f) make a copy of this Act and the regulations readily available for review by the employer's workers and, at each workplace where workers of the employer are regularly employed, post and keep posted a notice advising where the copy is available for review,

(g) consult and cooperate with the joint committees and worker health and safety representatives for workplaces of the employer, and

(h) cooperate with the Board, officers of the Board and any other person carrying out a duty under this Part or the regulations.

Section 3.1 of the Regulation states:

3.1 When program required

(1) An occupational health and safety program as outlined in section 3.3 must be initiated and maintained

(a) by each employer that has

(i) a workforce of 20 or more workers, and

(ii) at least one workplace that is determined under section 3.16 (2) (b) to create a moderate or high risk of injury, or

(b) by each employer that has a workforce of 50 or more workers.

(1.1) If subsection (1)(a) or (b) applies to the employer, the occupational health and safety program applies to the whole of the employer's operations.

(2) Despite subsection (1) an occupational health and safety program may be required in any workplace when, in the opinion of an officer, such a program is necessary.

Purpose of guideline
The purpose of this guideline is to

  • Provide background information on farm labour contractors (FLCs) and their role as employers of farm workers
  • Describe circumstances in which the contractor has an obligation to establish a formal occupational health and safety program, and lists the elements that would typically be covered in the programs
  • Describe circumstances in which informal programs are required, and what they would include
  • Discuss the occupational health and safety responsibilities of growers who use contractors to provide services of farm workers in their operations
  • Provide five examples of how the responsibilities of FLCs apply to the protection of farm workers, in comparison to the responsibilities of the grower: worker transport vehicles, personal protective equipment, first aid, protection from hazardous materials, and training

Farm labour contractors and their responsibilities as employers
Farm labour contractors are licensed under the Employment Standards Act. Lists of licensed FLCs are maintained by the Employment Standards Branch at http://www.labour.gov.bc.ca/esb/agriculture/flclist.htm, along with information on the crops serviced and the number of workers for which the FLCs are bonded. In April 2007, about 100 FLCs were listed, bonded for approximately 6,900 workers.

Most FLCs provide services to the vegetable, berry, nursery, and greenhouse sectors, but some deal in other sectors such as poultry, tree fruits, and vineyards. Most are based in the Lower Mainland and Fraser Valley, but a number operate elsewhere, particularly in the Okanagan region.

FLCs are considered employers because of the nature of their contractual arrangements with farm workers. As such they have all the responsibilities of employers under the Act and the Regulation.

When do requirements for formal OHS programs apply?
OHS Guideline G3.1 (Occupational health and safety program) provides detailed information on the application of section 3.1 of the Regulation. It discusses how to count workers for the purposes of determining whether a formal occupational health and safety (OHS) program is required, and outlines considerations that will be used by WorkSafeBC prevention officers when exercising their discretion to require a formal OHS program under section 3.2 of the Regulation. A brief summary of the main points from the guideline is provided below.

Workers are included in the count if they are employed for more than a month. In addition they are included if they have currently worked for less than a month but have previously worked periodically for the employer. As noted in section 3.1(1.1) of the Regulation the count of workers covers all the operations of the employer. This is particularly important to an FLC who provides workers to a number of different farming operations. The count is to include all workers who work for the FLC, not just to those assigned to a particular farming operation.

As noted in section 3.1(1) of the Regulation, if an employer employs workers in at least one moderate or high risk operation there must be a formal OHS program if the total workforce in all operations is 20 workers or more. For all other situations there must be at least 50 workers in the count before a formal OHS program is required. (Most FLCs are bonded for workforces of 20 or more workers and are likely to be involved in at least one moderate risk operation.).

The hazard rating for a farm labour contractor is based on the hazard rating for the farming operations to which the FLC provides the workers. Unless a hazard assessment demonstrates otherwise, most of the operations typically serviced by FLCs are moderate risk. Examples include: berry farms, greenhouse operations, vegetable farms, and orchards. In any case where an FLC provides workers to at least one moderate risk operation, the FLC must provide a formal OHS program for all their workers if they have a total workforce of 20 or more workers, regardless of whether the FLC's other workers are engaged in low risk work.

Under section 3.1(2) of the Regulation a prevention officer may require a formal OHS program even if it is not required under section 3.1(1). This may apply where the workforce is less than 20 workers, but the workers are exposed to high risk and it is considered that an OHS program is essential to the health and safety of workers.

(Note that for a grower, the obligations to provide a formal OHS program will also apply at the workplace(s) operated by the grower, depending on the level of risk in the workplace(s) and the total number of workers working in the workplace(s) for the periods of time outlined above.)

What do formal OHS programs include?
Under section 3.3 of the Regulation (Contents of program) the occupational health and safety program must be designed to prevent injuries and occupational diseases, and must include at least the following elements:

  1. A statement of the employer's aims, and of the responsibilities of the employer, supervisors, and workers.
  2. Provision for regular inspection of premises, equipment, work methods, and work practices, at appropriate intervals, to ensure that prompt action is undertaken to correct any hazardous conditions found.
  3. Appropriate written instructions, available for reference by all workers, to supplement the Regulation.
  4. Provision for the prompt investigation of incidents to determine the action necessary to prevent their recurrence.
  5. The maintenance of records and statistics, including reports of inspections and incident investigations, with provision for making this information available to the joint committee or worker health and safety representative, as applicable and, on request, to a prevention officer, the union representing the workers at the workplace or, if there is no union, the workers at the workplace.
  6. Provision by the employer for the instruction and supervision of workers in the safe performance of their work.
  7. Provision for holding periodic management meetings for the purpose of reviewing health and safety activities and incident trends, and for the determination of necessary courses of action.

An effective program will

  • Identify hazards in the workplace
  • Control the hazards and eliminate or minimize the potential for workplace injuries or illness
  • Be monitored to ensure the program meets its goals and WorkSafeBC requirements under the Act and Regulation

To achieve these objectives the program may need to include additional elements.

What are the requirements for less formal OHS programs in small operations?
These requirements are established by section 3.2 of the Regulation. Such programs must be implemented in all workplaces where formal OHS programs are not required.

The employer has the following three basic responsibilities when implementing and maintaining a less formal program:

  • Hold regular monthly meetings with workers for discussion of health and safety matters
  • Ensure meetings deal with correction of unsafe conditions and practices and the maintenance of cooperative interest in the health and safety of the workforce
  • Maintain a record of the meetings and the matters discussed. This does not mean that formal minutes have to be kept. It is sufficient that a record is kept of when meetings were held, who attended, and the general nature of what was discussed. The record should mention any specific concerns raised by persons attending, and it must be available for inspection by prevention officers

Responsibilities of growers in relation to FLCs
FLCs provide contract labour services to growers. Growers who receive their services also have responsibilities for those workers, typically as employers under section 115(1)(a)(i) & (ii) of the Act and the provisions of the Regulation.

Under section 115 of the Act the grower is responsible for the health and safety of all workers at the grower's workplace, including those of any other employer. Also, depending on the situation, growers may have responsibilities as prime contractors or owners under sections 118 and 119 of the Act respectively.

A prime contractor must

  • Ensure that the activities of employers, workers, and other persons at the workplace relating to occupational health and safety are coordinated
  • Do everything that is reasonably practicable to establish and maintain a system or process in the workplace that will ensure compliance with Part 3 of the Act and the Regulation

An owner must

  • Provide and maintain the owner's land and premises that are being used as a workplace in a manner that ensures the health and safety of persons at or near the workplace
  • Give to the employer or prime contractor at the workplace the information known to the owner that is necessary to identify and eliminate or control hazards to the health or safety of persons at the workplace
  • Comply with Part 3 of the Act, the Regulation, and any applicable orders

(Note: Under section 106 of the Act an owner includes not only a person who owns land outright, but also one who is a tenant, lessee, or occupier of the land or premises.)

Examples of the application of OHS requirements to FLCs and growers
The following examples will assist with an understanding of the application of occupational health and safety requirements to FLCs, and growers who contract for their services.

1. Worker transport vehicles: These are typically owned and operated by FLCs. As such FLCs are responsible for all aspects of safety of the vehicle including condition, maintenance, operation, and use. Requirements apply under provisions such as Part 17 (Worker transportation) of the Regulation, and those under the Motor Vehicle Act.

Growers who contract with FLCs are expected to exercise an oversight function when the vehicle arrives on site. Should they observe any faulty condition of the vehicle or unsafe operation they should draw it to the attention of the FLC to ensure it is corrected. In addition, as owners, the growers have a responsibility to make sure that the site is safe, including any roadway to be used by the worker transport vehicle operated by the FLC.

2. Personal protective equipment (PPE): Part 8 (Personal Protective Clothing and Equipment) of the Regulation provides the applicable requirements. Section 8.2 outlines the obligations of workers and employers. Generally, workers are expected to provide clothing for protection against the natural elements such as weather, and general purpose work gloves, footwear, and safety headgear if needed. However, the Regulation also recognizes that an employer may provide any or all of these items.

An employer must provide any other PPE required for the protection of workers. This might include protective gloves, clothing, or respirators if workers may be exposed to pesticides or other harmful materials, and hearing protection if workers will be working near noisy equipment. Typically, the grower controls the circumstances where workers may be at risk on the worksite and would have the expertise on appropriate PPE. In such cases, the grower would have a primary responsibility for provision of such equipment, but the FLC shares in that responsibility.

3. First aid: Under the requirements for first aid in Part 3 (Rights and Responsibilities) of the Regulation, the FLC is responsible for the provision of first aid for farm workers in their employ. First aid equipment must be provided on worker transport vehicles as required by section 17.10 (Vehicle design), as well as appropriate fire extinguishers. Typically the equipment required will be a Level 1 first aid kit, except where a very small number of workers are transported, in which case a basic kit may be sufficient.

Once workers have been transported to a worksite, the hazard assessment is likely to change, as many agricultural worksites are at least moderate risk. First aid for the FLC's workers would have to be adjusted accordingly. In addition, if the grower employs workers other than those provided by the FLC, then the first aid for the site needs to take account of the total number of workers on site.

As previously mentioned, the grower typically has employer responsibilities on site for workers provided by the farm labour contractor. If in a particular situation the grower is a prime contractor (refer to section 118 of the Act), then section 3.20 of the Regulation requires the grower to do everything that is reasonably practicable to establish and maintain the necessary first aid capability on the site. Unless there is an unusual circumstance, such as a short term situation in which the FLC provides more workers than was originally requested, it will be considered practicable for the grower to provide first aid that covers all workers on site.

4. Protection from hazardous materials: Typically workers employed by FLCs carry out activities such as pruning, thinning, and harvesting. In most cases, if there are hazardous materials present in a workplace, then they are likely to be under the control of the grower.

Under their responsibilities as both owners and employers, growers are required to maintain a safe site, and ensure that FLCs are given the information needed to ensure the safety of the FLC's workers.

Information requirements on hazardous materials are covered primarily in Part 5 (Chemical Agents and Biological Agents) of the Regulation. Most substances to which a worker might be exposed in an agricultural operation (such as many pesticides, corrosive cleaning agents, and fertilizers) are covered by the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS), which is addressed in sections 5.3 to 5.18. For hazardous substances not covered by WHMIS, such as decomposition gases from silos and manure pits, section 5.2 will apply. Other provisions in Part 5 cover issues such as storage, exposure limits, ventilation, and hazardous wastes.

Part 6 (Substance Specific Requirements) of the Regulation covers requirements for specific groups of substances; for example, pesticides. Among other things, the employer must ensure that pesticides are stored and used safely, are applied by a qualified person, that restricted entry intervals are established after application of a pesticide and appropriate warning signs are posted, and that proper hygiene facilities are provided. In most cases these measures will be the responsibility of the grower.

Restricted entry intervals prohibit entry by a worker into an area in which pesticides are applied unless a worker is properly protected before he/she enters the area. Workers must be protected both before and after the expiry of the entry intervals. The party that controls the use of pesticides on site, typically the grower, has responsibilities to protect workers under these provisions. In addition they have the responsibility to communicate to the FLC all information needed to ensure the safety of the FLC's workers. Depending on the arrangements made between the grower and the FLC, one or both of the parties will be responsible for providing necessary information to workers, and any necessary personal protective equipment that is not the responsibility of the worker under section 8.2 of the Regulation.

5. Training: Under section 115(2) of the Act, an employer has the responsibility to ensure workers are made aware of all known or reasonably foreseeable hazards, as well as their rights and duties under the Act and Regulation, and are provided with the information, instruction, training, and supervision to ensure their health and safety. A number of specific training requirements are covered in the Regulation. Three examples are provided below.

5.1 Orientation: Effective July 26, 2007 under sections 3.22 to 3.25 of the Regulation all young and new workers must receive orientation and training specific to the workplace. New workers include workers who are relocated to a new workplace if the hazards in that workplace are different from the hazards in their previous workplace. These provisions will have substantial application to FLCs in the agriculture sector given that their workers are often assigned to new workplaces. Again, responsibilities may be shared between the grower and FLC on how the various specified training and orientation elements are addressed. It may, for example, be reasonable to expect that the FLC take the lead on providing generic instruction on topics that are not site-specific, with the grower taking responsibility for site specific topics. Records must be kept of the orientation and training provided.

5.2 WHMIS: For hazardous substances covered by WHMIS, the worker must receive the education and training required by sections 5.6 and 5.7 of the Regulation. Section 5.6 deals with general (generic) requirements to ensure workers know among other things the elements of the WHMIS program, and the content required on labels and safety data sheets (SDS). Section 5.7 addresses site-specific requirements for training in the safe procedures for hazardous products in the workplace.

Again, the FLC and grower may, depending on the arrangements between them, share in the responsibilities for both generic instruction and site-specific training. It may be a typical scenario for the FLC to ensure generic instruction is given, and the grower to cover site-specific training. In the final analysis, the worker must be able to answer the following four questions:

  • What are the hazards of the materials to which I may be exposed?
  • How am I protected from those hazards?
  • What do I do in the event of an emergency?
  • Where do I get more detailed information?

5.3 Forklifts and other on-site equipment: Typically any such equipment is under the control of the grower. Therefore, it will be the grower who has the basic responsibility to ensure workers are trained in the use of the equipment should they be required to operate it, and in the safe procedures to follow for workers who are working in the vicinity of the equipment. The FLC has a responsibility to ensure that adequate training has been provided.

5.4 FLC vehicles: The FLC is responsible for instruction of workers in the use of FLC vehicles used for transporting farm workers to and from the grower's operation. This would include, for example, instruction for the operator in the requirements of the pre-shift vehicle inspection, and for the operator and workers being transported, instruction in the proper procedures to follow in the vehicle, such as the procedures for the transport of materials and tools, and the use of seat belts.

G3.2 "Less formal" occupational health and safety (OHS) programs

Issued October 26, 2005; Revised May 17, 2006; Editorial Revision February 1, 2008

Regulatory excerpt
Section 3.1 of the OHS Regulation ("Regulation") states:

3.1(1) An occupational health and safety program as outlined in section 3.3 must be initiated and maintained

(a) by each employer that has

(i) a workforce of 20 or more workers, and

(ii) at least one workplace that is determined under section 3.16 (2) (b) to create a moderate or high risk of injury, or

(b) by each employer that has a workforce of 50 or more workers.

(1.1) If subsection (1)(a) or (b) applies to the employer, the occupational health and safety program applies to the whole of the employer's operations.

(2) Despite subsection (1) an occupational health and safety program may be required in any workplace when, in the opinion of an officer, such a program is necessary.

Section 3.2 of the Regulation states:

In any operation where the workforce is less than that referred to in section 3.1(1) the employer must

(a) initiate and maintain a less formal program based on regular monthly meetings with workers for discussion of health and safety matters,

(b) ensure that meetings are directed to matters concerning the correction of unsafe conditions and practices and the maintenance of cooperative interest in the health and safety of the workforce, and

(c) maintain a record of the meetings and the matters discussed.

Purpose of guideline
The purpose of this guideline is to highlight situations where employers are required to implement a "less formal program" under section 3.2, rather than an OHS program under section 3.1, but are still required to implement joint committees under the Workers Compensation Act ("Act"). The guideline also discusses requirements for less formal programs under section 3.2.

OHS programs, less formal programs, and joint committees
Under section 3.2 of the Regulation, less formal programs are required in any operation where the workforce is less than that referred to in section 3.1(1). Note that even where an OHS program under sections 3.1 and 3.3 is not required, an employer may be required to establish and maintain a joint committee under section 125 of the Act.

For example, consider the following situation:

Number of workers 30
Risk level Low
OHS Program required under section 3.1(1)? No
Joint Committee required under section 125(a) of the Act? Yes

In this situation, the employer must meet the requirements of section 3.2 of the Regulation and the requirements in the Act for joint committees.

Requirement for less formal programs
Section 3.2(a) requires that the employer or a person delegated by the employer calls, at least once a month, a meeting of workers present at that time. The employer's obligation under section 3.2(c) to maintain a "record of the meetings" does not mean that formal minutes have to be kept. It is sufficient that a record is kept of when meetings were held, who attended and the general nature of what was discussed. The record should mention any specific concerns raised by persons attending. The record must be available for inspection by prevention officers.

Guidelines Part 3 - Correction of unsafe conditions

G3.11 Emergency circumstances

Issued August 1, 1999

An officer encountering a situation presenting an immediate danger must act in accordance with section 3.11 of the OHS Regulation with respect to his or her personal safety, and ensure the employer complies with section 3.11 while correcting the unsafe condition.

Normally an officer will refrain from direct involvement in correcting the unsafe condition. If necessary to render assistance, the officer will proceed with caution and within his or her qualifications. The officer must immediately attempt to notify his or her manager.

An officer receiving an inquiry regarding immediate danger to the public will refer the parties concerned to the appropriate authority. If it is not clear who the appropriate authority is, the parties should be referred to the police or fire department responsible for the area where the reported immediate danger exists.

Guidelines Part 3 - Refusal of unsafe work

G3.12 Refusal of unsafe work

Issued August 1, 1999; Revised September 21, 2011

Regulatory excerpt
Section 3.12 of the OHS Regulation ("Regulation") states:

(1) A person must not carry out or cause to be carried out any work process or operate or cause to be operated any tool, appliance or equipment if that person has reasonable cause to believe that to do so would create an undue hazard to the health and safety of any person.

(2) A worker who refuses to carry out a work process or operate a tool, appliance or equipment pursuant to subsection (1) must immediately report the circumstances of the unsafe condition to his or her supervisor or employer.

(3) A supervisor or employer receiving a report made under subsection (2) must immediately investigate the matter and

(a) ensure that any unsafe condition is remedied without delay, or

(b) if in his or her opinion the report is not valid, must so inform the person who made the report.

(4) If the procedure under subsection (3) does not resolve the matter and the worker continues to refuse to carry out the work process or operate the tool, appliance or equipment, the supervisor or employer must investigate the matter in the presence of the worker who made the report and in the presence of

(a) a worker member of the joint committee,

(b) a worker who is selected by a trade union representing the worker, or

(c) if there is no joint committee or the worker is not represented by a trade union, any other reasonably available worker selected by the worker.

(5) If the investigation under subsection (4) does not resolve the matter and the worker continues to refuse to carry out the work process or operate the tool, appliance or equipment, both the supervisor, or the employer, and the worker must immediately notify an officer, who must investigate the matter without undue delay and issue whatever orders are deemed necessary.

Section 3.13 of the Regulation states:

(1) A worker must not be subject to discriminatory action as defined in section 150 of Part 3 of the Workers Compensation Act because the worker has acted in compliance with section 3.12 or with an order made by an officer.

(2) Temporary assignment to alternative work at no loss in pay to the worker until the matter in section 3.12 is resolved is deemed not to constitute discriminatory action.

Section 4.19 of the Regulation states:

(1) A worker with a physical or mental impairment which may affect the worker's ability to safely perform assigned work must inform his or her supervisor or employer of the impairment, and must not knowingly do work where the impairment may create an undue risk to the worker or anyone else.

(2) A worker must not be assigned to activities where a reported or observed impairment may create an undue risk to the worker or anyone else.

Purpose of guideline
This guideline explains the test for determining whether a worker has a "reasonable cause to believe" that an undue hazard exists or would be created, and what constitutes an "undue hazard." It also provides guidance on the process for the investigation into a work refusal, where completion of the procedure under section 3.12(3)of the Regulation has not resolved the work stoppage.

The right to refuse unsafe work
The refusal of unsafe work is both a fundamental right and a responsibility held by workers. A worker's refusal of unsafe work is an integral element in ensuring work is carried out safely. Workers who reasonably believe work is unsafe must refuse to perform that work and are entitled to have their employer investigate and, where necessary, correct the hazard.

Elements of the right to refuse
Section 3.12(1) states that "A person must not carry out or cause to be carried out any work process or operate or cause to be operated any tool, appliance or equipment if that person has reasonable cause to believe that to do so would create an undue hazard to the health and safety of any person." In many situations, the "reasonable cause" and "undue hazard" can be straightforward.

However, in some situations it can be more difficult to determine that the worker has reasonable cause to believe there is an undue hazard. These terms are discussed below.

"Undue hazard"
A "hazard" is identified in Part 1 of the Regulation as "a thing or condition that may expose a person to a risk of injury or occupational disease." Further, "undue" is defined by the Oxford dictionary as "unwarranted, inappropriate, excessive or disproportionate." Therefore, a thing or condition that may expose a worker to an excessive or unwarranted risk of injury or occupational disease represents an undue hazard for the purposes of section 3.12 of the Regulation.

"Reasonable cause to believe"
The use of the term "reasonable" in "reasonable cause to believe" means that the worker must assess the situation as a reasonable person, taking into account relevant and available information and exercising good faith judgment with respect to the hazard with due regard to the worker's training and experience.

For example, a worker is assigned to work in the shipping and receiving area, covering the duties of another worker who is absent due to illness. Some supplies are delivered that require the use of a forklift to unload the delivery truck. The worker normally works in the warehouse in an area other than shipping and receiving, and has no prior experience or training in forklift operation. The worker believes that his lack of training and experience in operating a forklift would expose him to an undue hazard. In this situation, this worker has reasonable cause to believe that undertaking this work, for which he has not been trained, would create an undue hazard for himself and possibly other workers.

Ultimately there must be an objective basis for a continued refusal for unsafe work. The goal of the process set out in sections 3.12(2) through (5) is to establish whether there is an objective, or reasonable, basis for the refusal and if so, to determine how to remedy the situation.

WorkSafeBC prevention officers investigating work refusals under s. 3.12(5) will deal with each refusal on a case by case basis, and will undertake a full assessment of the situation in order to conclude whether the worker had reasonable cause to believe an undue hazard existed.

"Reasonable cause to believe" and the susceptible worker
Some workers may have an underlying condition which would lead them to suffer an illness or sustain an injury, even though others would not be affected in the same way. In this so-called "susceptible worker" situation, the "objective " test of whether the worker has reasonable cause to believe the work presents an undue hazard is to be applied in the context of the person's specific health condition.

To uphold a work refusal, there needs to be a clear connection between the undue hazard asserted by the susceptible worker, and his or her health condition. As part of the investigation into the refusal, the employer may ask for confirming evidence of the effect of the hazard on the person's condition. While the evidence is being obtained, the worker should be removed from the condition that the worker asserts is an undue hazard.

As an example, an offensive odor is present and apparent to all the workers in an office. One of the workers refuses to continue to work, saying that he suffers from a respiratory ailment and the odor is exacerbating his condition. He reports to the supervisor that he is suffering ill health effects from the odor, including difficulty breathing. The worker is acting reasonably in refusing to continue working, and is reassigned pending the employer's investigation into the refusal. As part of the investigation into the refusal, the employer asks for documentation of the condition, and the worker provides a note from his doctor confirming that the exposure to odors can exacerbate the worker's medical condition.

Application of procedure
To facilitate a timely resolution to a work refusal and ensure that work activities can return to normal as soon as possible, it is important that each step described in the Regulation is followed in an expedited manner. If the process outlined in section 3.12(3) fails to bring resolution to the matter, the investigation would continue as described by section 3.12(4). A person identified by section 3.12(4) who is available to participate in the investigation would be chosen without delay, so the investigation can continue.

To illustrate the application of section 3.12, consider the scenario described in the first example above.

The worker who has been directed to unload the truck immediately reports the work refusal to his supervisor, as required by section 3.12(2). The supervisor who receives the report immediately investigates the matter, per section 3.12(3). Through the investigation, it is established that this worker is not qualified to perform the work, and therefore the work presents an undue hazard for that worker. The supervisor locates another worker who possesses the necessary training and experience to perform this work safely, and reassigns the worker who refused the work to other job tasks. These actions satisfy the work refusal by removing the undue hazard to the inadequately trained worker.

However, if in the opinion of the supervisor the initial report of the unsafe condition is not valid, the supervisor is required to inform the worker of that opinion. If no resolution to the work refusal is found following this report, the supervisor needs to immediately contact an available party identified in section 3.12(4) to continue the investigation. If a resolution is found after the matter is investigated in the presence of this person, the work refusal is satisfied at this stage. If no resolution is found to the work refusal, both the supervisor, or the employer, and the worker must immediately notify a prevention officer.

A prevention officer investigating a work refusal under section 3.12(5) of the Regulation will conduct the following:

  1. Ensure that the worker(s) refusing to work and the employer's representative both understand the procedure described under section 3.12. If the parties have not followed the procedure set out in section 3.12(4), the prevention officer will review the procedure with the parties, and direct them to continue their inquiries into the work refusal until such time as the parties have exhausted their efforts to resolve the matter.
  2. Should the parties be unable to resolve the matter themselves, the prevention officer will inspect the work areas, processes, equipment, and practices associated with the work refusal. If the prevention officer finds that an undue hazard is present, the prevention officer will issue an inspection report addressing the violations that apply to the undue hazard. This may include compliance orders as well as a stop use or stop work order, if the circumstances meet the criteria for such orders, as described in the applicable guideline, G-D12-190 or G-D12-191.
  3. Where the prevention officer identifies violations that are not related to the inquiry into the work refusal, the prevention officer will address them in a separate inspection report.
  4. If an undue hazard is not identified, the prevention officer will inform the parties of this finding, and include the following statement in the inspection text of the inspection report: "An investigation into a work refusal under section 3.12 has not identified an undue hazard."
  5. The prevention officer will advise the parties of the requirement of section 3.13 of the Regulation that "A worker must not be subject to discriminatory action as defined in section 150 of Part 3 of the Workers Compensation Act because the worker has acted in compliance with section 3.12 with an order made by an officer."

Note: Where a prevention officer has made a finding that the investigation into a work refusal under section 3.12 has not identified an undue hazard, and the worker refuses to return to work, the worker is no longer protected by the provisions of section 3.13 of the Regulation.

Right to refuse vs. physical or mental impairment (section 4.19)
Section 4.19 states that where a worker alleges that due to a physical or mental impairment his or her ability to safely perform the assigned work is affected, the worker must inform his or her supervisor or employer of the impairment. Further, the worker must not perform the work if to do so would create an undue risk to the worker or anyone else. An employer must not assign work where impairment may create such an undue risk to the worker or anyone else.

A worker's reporting of a physical or mental impairment under section 4.19 does not trigger a work refusal under section 3.12 or require the employer investigate it under sections 3.12(3) and (4). However, if an employer continues to instruct the worker to perform the assigned work, and the worker has reasonable grounds to believe his or her impairment will create an undue hazard, the worker must refuse to perform that work. At this point, the refusal does constitute a work refusal under section 3.12.

Flowchart for Guideline G3.12

Guidelines Part 3 - Occupational first aid

G3.14 to G3.21 First aid guidelines for employers

Issued March 30, 2004; Revised November 1, 2004; Editorial Revision February 1, 2008

The first aid guidelines cover the following:

The following supplementary materials support these guidelines; all but the first of these documents are included at the end of the first aid guidelines:

If you wish to print all the first aid guidelines with supplementary materials, these are available in PDF format on the WorkSafeBC web site.

In addition, you may wish to print the first aid assessment flow chart
and the first aid assessment worksheet.

G3.14 First aid attendant certification, qualifications, and general responsibilities

Issued November 1, 2004; Revised September 30, 2009

Regulatory excerpt
Section 3.14 of the OHS Regulation ("Regulation") states:

"first aid attendant" means a person who holds a valid first aid certificate issued by the Board or by a person recognized by the Board and who is designated as a first aid attendant by the employer;

Purpose of guideline
The purpose of this guideline is to provide additional information about how an individual becomes certified as a first aid attendant. This includes information for out of province first aid attendants.

WorkSafeBC standard for first aid attendants
In order to clarify the definition of "first aid attendant" ("attendant") under section 3.14 of the Regulation, qualifications of attendants under section 3.15 of the Regulation, and responsibilities of attendants under section 3.21 of the Regulation, WorkSafeBC has issued WCB Standard OFA1: Certification of Occupational First Aid Attendants.

This standard explains how a person becomes certified to act as an attendant in the workplace, the terms and conditions of certification, the general responsibilities of the attendant in the workplace, and the disciplinary actions WorkSafeBC may take if an attendant does not meet his or her responsibilities.

The standard is available online.

Out-of-province first aid attendants
First aid attendants who possess a certificate required by a regulatory authority in another province or territory in Canada do not need to undergo further testing or assessment. However, in order to receive a B.C. first aid certificate, out-of-province first aid attendants are required to register with a B.C. first aid training agency and complete a review of a "jurisprudence package" which outlines regulatory requirements and safe work practices applicable in B.C. The first aid attendant will then be issued a B.C. certificate with an out-of-jurisdiction notation on it for the applicable level of first aid certification.

A list of B.C. first aid training authorities can be found online.

G3.16 First aid assessment

Issued March 30, 2004; Revised February 1, 2008

Regulatory excerpt
Section 3.16 of the OHS Regulation ("Regulation") states:

(1) The employer must provide for each workplace such equipment, supplies, facilities, first aid attendants and services as are adequate and appropriate for

(a) promptly rendering first aid to workers if they suffer an injury at work, and

(b) transporting injured workers to medical treatment.

(1.1) The type and quantity of equipment, supplies, facilities, first aid attendants and services referred to in subsection (1) must be no less than is required by Schedule 3-A.

(1.2) The quality, maintenance and use of equipment, facilities and methods of transportation referred to in this section must be acceptable to the Board.

(2) For the purpose of complying with subsection (1), the employer must conduct an assessment of the circumstances of the workplace, including

(a) the number of workers who may require first aid at any time,

(b) the nature and extent of the risks and hazards in the workplace, including whether or not the workplace as a whole creates a low, moderate or high risk of injury,

(c) the types of injuries likely to occur,

(d) any barriers to first aid being provided to an injured worker, and

(e) the time that may be required to obtain transportation and to transport an injured worker to medical treatment.

(3) The employer must review the assessment under subsection (2)

(a) within 12 months after the previous assessment or review, and

(b) whenever a significant change affecting the assessment occurs in the employer's operations.

(4) First aid equipment, supplies and facilities must be kept clean, dry and ready for use, and be readily accessible at any time a worker works in the workplace.

Purpose of guideline
The purpose of this guideline is to set out a step-by-step method for employers to follow when conducting an assessment of the workplace to determine an adequate and appropriate level of first aid coverage. These steps cover the requirements listed in section 3.16(2) and (3). The steps are designed to help employers determine which table applies to their workplace and what the required levels of first aid service mean. (See Schedule 3-A Minimum Levels of First Aid Tables 1-6 ("Schedule 3-A") in the Regulation.) Also see, at the end of these Guidelines: First Aid Kits: Recommended Contents, First Aid Facilities: Recommended Criteria, and Emergency Vehicles and Equipment).

Most employers will not need all the information provided in this guideline. A flow chart and worksheet are available to help you do the first aid assessment for your workplace. Where you may need additional information as you work through the flow chart, the chart refers to the appropriate part of the first aid guidelines. These guidelines are also available online (PDF).

Employer's responsibility to conduct an assessment
Schedule 3-A in the Regulation specifies mandatory minimum levels of first aid, including what type of first aid kits, facilities, and equipment are required. Schedule 3-A does not specify required contents or criteria for the first aid kits, facilities and equipment. The content and criteria of first aid kits, facilities and equipment should be based on the assessment performed under section 3.16(2). This recognizes that persons working in the workplace will generally have a greater awareness of its circumstances and needs than WorkSafeBC. Employers are expected to exercise good judgment in performing the assessment.

Once employers have identified the required minimum levels of first aid in Schedule 3-A, they should consult the appropriate table in First Aid Kits: Recommended Minimum Contents, First Aid Facilities: Recommended Minimum Criteria, and Emergency Vehicles and Equipment, found at the end of this guideline. Typically, employers would be expected to approximate the recommendations in the appropriate tables. However, after conducting an assessment, the employer may legitimately conclude that the nature of the necessary first aid kit, facility or equipment is different from that which is recommended in the appropriate table. If the recommendations in the tables are not followed, employers are expected to demonstrate that the assessment was conducted diligently and led to a reasonable conclusion about the content or nature of first aid kit, facility and equipment required at the workplace. If their assessment results in levels different from those suggested in the tables, given the circumstances at the workplace, the employer is expected to explain and provide a rationale for the differences. An assessment must not result in levels lower than the mandatory minimums required by Schedule 3-A.

If workers of two or more employers are working at the same workplace at the same time, the prime contractor is responsible for conducting the assessment and providing the first aid services identified by the assessment. Refer to OHS Guideline G3.20.

Conducting the assessment

Step 1:
Identify the workplace.

First identify the workplace for which first aid is required. As a result of this step, you may determine that you have more than one workplace. An assessment of the first aid requirements for each workplace must be done.

Is the workplace at one location only?
For most workplaces with one location, there is one workplace. However, if there is more than one location or if there are lodgings, there may be more than one workplace.

Consider the factors in the following table to see if they apply to your workplace. In any situation, the factors may point to different conclusions. It is then necessary to weigh those factors indicating one workplace against those indicating separate workplaces. After considering all the factors, you should choose the option that provides the greatest level of first aid service.

Location factors

Factor No. Factor Indication of one workplace Indication of separate workplaces
1 Location or locations are under the control of one employer. Yes  
2 Location leased by one employer is part of a larger property which may be leased to others   Yes
3 Locations controlled by one employer are separated by locations controlled by other employers.   Generally yes, but depends on circumstances. See 6.
4 Locations of one employer are more than 20 minutes apart from each other.   Yes
5 A public roadway separates locations of one employer from each other in an urban area.   Yes
6 Locations of one employer are 20 minutes or less from each other in a rural area. Yes  
7 Though adjoining, locations of one employer are separated by physical barriers.   Yes
8 Though controlled by one employer, the locations are under separate administrative structures.   Yes

Lodgings
Lodgings at or near the workplace, generally within 20 minutes, should be considered part of the workplace. First aid service should be based on the total workforce present at the place of work and in the lodgings at any time. This does not apply to a company town or to motels or hotels where workers have lodgings in a nearby town.

The employer providing lodgings may allow other employers on the site to accommodate their workers there. The employer providing the lodgings is responsible for ensuring that first aid service is provided for all workers in the lodgings, unless other arrangements are made.

Lodgings that are not at or near the workplace may be considered a separate workplace. The level of first aid service must be determined by conducting an assessment based on the number of workers in the lodgings. This includes workers such as cooks and cleaners who perform their daily work there as well as others who work elsewhere but spend free time there.

The employer may be able to provide the required first aid services for the lodgings and the workplace by moving the same first aid personnel and equipment from one place to the other as the workers move.

Multiple employer workplaces
See OHS Guideline G3.20 for more information on multiple employer workplaces where there is a prime contractor.

At the end of Step 1
An assessment is required for each workplace identified in Step 1. If you are using the worksheet provided on the web site, fill in a separate sheet for each workplace since the requirements may be different.

Step 2:
Determine the hazard rating as low (L), moderate (M), or high (H).

The workplace can be assigned an overall rating that indicates the nature and extent of the risks and hazards in the workplace. The step-by-step approach in this guideline uses three levels of hazard rating: low, moderate, and high.

(a) Is my industry listed in the Assigned Hazard Rating List?
To assist in the assessment, WorkSafeBC has assigned ratings of low, moderate, and high to various industries in an "Assigned Hazard Rating List." The list reflects the previous Schedule 7 in Part 33 (prior to March 30, 2004). The new designations correspond to former hazard ratings:

  • C in Schedule 7 = Low (L)
  • B in Schedule 7 = Moderate (M)
  • A in Schedule 7 = High (H)

If your industry is not in the "Assigned Hazard Rating List," it is probably because there is a wide variation in the industry as to the job functions, work processes, or tools and equipment. You can calculate a hazard rating using the adjustment calculation in (d) of this step, or you may call WorkSafeBC at 604-276-3100 or toll-free at 1-888-621-7233 and talk to an officer who can help you with this part of the assessment.

(b) Are the job functions, work processes, and tools used in my workplace typical of the industry?
You need to determine if the assigned rating is appropriate and make a rating adjustment if the circumstances warrant it. The overall workplace rating is based on typical job functions, which are designated as low risk or high risk. There is no moderate level for job functions, but the percentage of workers doing high-risk job functions and the amount of time they spend doing those job functions determines whether a workplace has an overall hazard rating of moderate or high.

Generally, to determine the level of risk of a job function, you should analyze the work conducted at the workplace to identify:

  • Conditions that exist or may develop during or at the end of the job
  • The work processes and the tools or equipment required for the job function
  • The past record of injuries, accidents, and other relevant circumstances associated with the job function

The following lists will help you determine whether your workplace has typical low-risk or high-risk job functions.

Typical low-risk job functions

  • Administrative and clerical tasks
  • Retail tasks
  • Service sector tasks (such as hospitality and tourism)
  • Professional, financial, and business services
  • Training or teaching

Typical high-risk job functions

  • Working in the presence of a biological agent designated as a hazardous substance in section 5.1.1 of the Regulation, toxic substance, or chemical, which, if released, would result in workers needing immediate medical treatment as a result of inhalation or eye or skin contact
  • Working in the presence of equipment or machinery containing substances under high pressure, substances that may explode or catch fire, or substances that may react dangerously when combined with another process material
  • Using tools, equipment, or machinery for high-speed grinding, cutting, chipping, or drilling
  • Operating equipment or machinery where rollover is possible
  • Working near mobile equipment where there is a possibility of a worker being struck
  • Working at elevations
  • Entering confined spaces where toxic atmospheres may exist or develop
  • Entering excavations greater than 1.2 metres (4 feet) in depth
  • Working in proximity to high-voltage lines
  • Being exposed to unusual risk of injury due to violence, drowning, animals, heat or cold, or falling objects
  • Working with, or in proximity to, firearms or explosives
  • Working where there are other hazard factors that may expose workers to risk of serious injury or occupational disease

If you decide that your workplace is not typical of the industry and that the assigned hazard rating is not appropriate, you can assess your level of risk and hazards in another way. See Step 2(d) below.

(c) Consider the type of injuries likely to occur, by looking at past incidents, near-misses, and injuries. Are these typical for this hazard rating?
The evaluation of types of injuries that can potentially occur is important, as varying levels of first aid attendants and supplies are required to promptly render first aid for varying types of injuries. For example, if a first aid attendant may need to move a person on a spine board, the workplace requires a Level 3 attendant or a Level 1 or 2 attendant with a Transportation Endorsement. If you want to know what the different levels of first aid courses cover, you can find this on the first aid web site under “Certificates accepted in B.C."

Look at past first aid records, incident reports, and WorkSafeBC time-loss claims history to see the type of injuries that have occurred in the past. You may be able to get information on typical injury trends from an industry association or WorkSafeBC.

If the hazard rating from the "Assigned Hazard Rating List" is appropriate, use that rating (L, M, or H) in Step 3. Or you may decide to use a higher hazard rating. If you have determined the appropriate hazard rating, you do not need to do the hazard rating adjustment in Step 2(d), which follows. Record this hazard rating on your worksheet.

(d) Do I want to calculate a different rating, more specific to my workplace?
Instead of using the table, you have the option of determining the hazard level using generally accepted principles and methods. The method in this guideline is one acceptable way to calculate an adjustment and is similar to methods used in other jurisdictions. WorkSafeBC officers may ask to see a written assessment or an explanation of your calculation of hazard rating.

Hazard rating adjustment
The following factors are considered when determining the overall hazard rating of the workplace:

  • The primary function of the business and whether it accounts for the majority of the work at the workplace
  • The ratio of low-risk job functions to high-risk job functions

The calculations will use the extent of individual worker exposures to establish the overall workplace rating as low, moderate, or high. These ratings determine the appropriate level of first aid service.

Calculating the extent of exposure to high-risk job functions follows these principles:

  • A worker's exposure to a hazard is assessed by looking at the percentage of time the worker is exposed to the hazard.
  • If a worker is exposed to more than one high hazard at the same time, the percentage of exposure is multiplied by the number of hazards.
  • If a worker is exposed to the same or different high hazards at different times, the percentages of exposure are added.

A rating could be adjusted up or down as a result of the calculations. Here is the method for adjusting between low and moderate

A low hazard rating would be adjusted up to a moderate hazard rating if either of the following occurs:

  • 30% or more of the workers have individual total exposures of greater than 20% to a high-risk job function, or
  • 50% or more of the workers have individual total exposures of greater than 10% to a high-risk job function

A moderate hazard rating would be adjusted down to a low hazard rating if both of the following occur:

  • 70% or more of the workers have individual total exposures of 20% or less to a high-risk job function, and
  • 50% or more of the workers have individual total exposures of 10% or less to a high-risk job function

Here is the method for adjusting between moderate and high

A moderate hazard rating would be adjusted up to a high hazard rating if either of the following occurs:

  • 30% or more of the workers have individual total exposures of greater than 75% to a high-risk job function, or
  • 50% or more of the workers have individual total exposures of greater than 50% to a high-risk job function

A high hazard rating would be adjusted down to a moderate hazard rating if both of the following occur:

  • 70% or more of the workers have individual total exposures of 75% or less to a high-risk job function, and
  • 50% or more of the workers have individual total exposures of 50% or less to a high-risk job function

It is expected that every workplace will have low-risk job functions. Therefore, it is generally expected that employers will start by assuming the workplace has a low hazard rating and will then move to a moderate or high rating if required. Adjustments are calculated from one level to the next, so it is a two-step process to go from low to moderate to high.

Example
To use the above calculations, you will need to identify the job functions for each worker (or for each group of workers doing the same job functions). Find out what percentage of time is spent doing each job function; you will need the percentage of time doing high-risk job functions for the calculations.

For example, in a lumber yard/retail hardware store, there are nine workers. Three workers do the same job. Each spends:

  • 5% of the time trimming boards with a chop saw (high risk)
  • 10% of the time operating and working around a fork lift (high risk)
  • 80% of the time loading stock on dollies (low risk)
  • 5% of the time doing cleanup (low risk)

Therefore, each of these three workers has an individual total exposure of 15% to high-risk job functions (obtained by adding 5% + 10%). The result is that 33% of the workforce has individual total exposures of 15%.

The remaining six workers do sales and office work, all spending 100% of their time in low-risk job functions. They have no exposure to high-risk job functions.

Although a lumber yard is listed as moderate in the "Assigned Hazard Rating List," this particular lumber yard has lower-than-expected exposures to high-risk job functions. When the adjustment calculation is applied, the moderate hazard rating is adjusted down to a low hazard rating because both of the following conditions apply:

  • 70% or more of the workers (in this case, 9 out of 9 workers) have exposures of 20% or less to high-risk job functions
  • 50% or more of the workers (in this case, 6 out of 9 workers) have exposures of 10% or less to high-risk job functions

At the end of Step 2
Record your hazard rating (L, M, or H) on the worksheet and use it in the next step.

Step 3:
Consider surface travel time to hospital.

Tables 1-6 in "Schedule 3-A: Minimum Levels of First Aid" in the Regulation have different levels of first aid service that are based on how long it takes to transport an injured person to a hospital and the number of workers per shift.

The definition of "hospital" for the purpose of the assessment is "a hospital or diagnostic and treatment centre that has an emergency department or resuscitation area and a physician on duty, or immediately available on call, during the hours when workers might need these services."

(a) Does it take more than 20 minutes to travel to hospital (by road or water) during working hours?
The calculation of time is based on the normal time to safely transport an injured worker on a stretcher by land or water, having consideration for the weather, road conditions, traffic patterns, and other factors that may affect travel and are likely to prevail during working hours.

Check that the hospital or treatment facility

  • Has an emergency department or resuscitation area
  • Has a physician on duty or immediately available on call
  • Is open during your working hours

Facilities with the designation hospital, health care centre, clinic, diagnostic and treatment centre, first aid post, and diagnostic facility offer different levels of patient care and various hours of operation. Some of these facilities have B.C. Ambulance bypass protocols in place. Bypass protocols are put in place if the local clinics or hospitals are unable to receive trauma patients during certain hours. The same "bypass" rules may apply to accepting the employer's emergency transportation vehicle or industrial ambulance.

As a result of the hours of service at the nearest treatment facility, you may find that the hospital for the day shift is closer than the hospital available for the night shift, and therefore a different table with different required first aid services would be used for the different shifts.

At the end of Step 3
On the worksheet, record the distance from hospital and the table for your workplace

  • Travel time of more than 20 minutes: Use Table 1 for L rating, Table 3 for M rating, or Table 5 for H rating.
  • Travel time of 20 minutes or less: Use Table 2 for L rating, Table 4 for M rating, or Table 6 for H rating.

Step 4:
Determine the number of workers on a shift.

For each workplace, the assessment must include the number of workers who may require first aid at any given time. The term "workers" includes managers and supervisors.

(a) Are all the workers at one location during the shift?
If yes, this is the number of workers (including managers and supervisors) to count.

If there are workers who are dispatched from a central workplace or workers in lodgings, they may need to be included in the first aid requirements for the central workplace. You can use the following method to count these workers.

Dispatched workers
Include dispatched workers within 20 minutes' surface travel time from the central workplace

  • Count as one worker each dispatched worker who stays within 20 minutes' surface travel time from the central workplace for more than 50% of the shift.
  • Count one-quarter of the number of workers who stay within 20 minutes' surface travel time from the central workplace for 10% to 50% of the shift (but are farther away for the rest of the shift).

It is required that dispatched workers who work alone and travel more than 20 minutes from the central workplace carry their own first aid personal kit. See "First Aid Kits: Recommended Minimum Contents."

Workers in lodgings provided by the employer

  • Include workers in lodgings at or near the workplace (within 20 minutes' travel time). The number of workers per shift should include all workers on shift and those in the lodgings.
  • As determined in Step 1, if the lodgings are more than 20 minutes from the workplace, the lodgings should be considered a separate workplace and have a separate first aid assessment.

(b) How many workers per shift are there?
Count the number of workers for each shift. Use the table you identified in Step 3 and find the number of workers per shift in Column 1.

At the end of Step 4
You have now determined which row in your table to use for each shift. The next step will take you through the remaining columns corresponding to the row you have just identified for the number of workers on a shift in your workplace. If there is more than one shift with different requirements, complete the information for each shift.

Step 5:
Find the required first aid services for your workplace.

Step 5 looks at the required level of first aid coverage needed for your workplace by looking at each column of the row you selected in your table in the previous step. Keep in mind the type of injuries that could potentially occur in your workplace - see Step 2(c). This will help you decide whether the required minimum service is adequate and appropriate for your workplace.

(a) Look at Column 2 of your table from Step 3. What supplies, equipment, and facilities are needed?
Column 1 lists the following:

(b) Is this adequate for the type of injuries expected and the distance to medical treatment?
Consider the past need for first aid services and the type of injuries that are likely to occur in your workplace. If necessary upgrade the facility from that given in the table. See Step 5(f) below for examples.

(c) Look at column 3 of your table. What level of first aid attendant is needed?
Column 3 lists the level of first aid attendant and the number of attendants if more than one is required for your workplace. For information on the levels of first aid certification, see "Types of First Aid Attendants and Training Programs."

(d) Is this adequate for the type of injuries expected and the distance to medical treatment?
Consider the past need for first aid services and the type of injuries that are likely to occur in your workplace. If necessary, upgrade the level or number of attendants from that given in the table. See Step 5(f) below for examples.

(e) Look at Column 4 of your table. What transportation is needed?
Column 4 lists whether an emergency vehicle is required. For recommendations on ETVs and industrial ambulances (and on a mobile treatment centre as an alternative), see "Emergency Vehicles and Equipment."

(f) Are there any barriers to reaching medical treatment?
This question helps you consider whether there is any potential delay in transporting an injured worker to medical treatment. These include the ambulance response time and remote locations.

Consider the factors that affect the response time of the ambulance service

  • Distance from the workplace to the ambulance centre
  • Availability of a full-time crew or a part-time crew on call
  • Obstructions on the access route to the workplace or other barrier likely to delay the arrival of an ambulance service. For example:
    • Regularly recurring temporary obstructions or barriers, such as railway lines used on a daily basis with railcars blocking access at some point in the day
    • Temporary obstructions or barriers of an isolated nature, such as long-term road closure
    • Permanent obstructions or barriers on the access road, such as cross ditching
  • Areas in the workplace that are not safely accessible to the ambulance service, such as access which requires specialized training to effect rescue
  • Rough terrain or other similar circumstances that prevent the ambulance from accessing the workplace

If an ambulance is not able to access the workplace, appropriate upgrading includes replacing a Level 2 attendant with a Level 3 attendant and supplying ETV equipment to facilitate preparing a patient for transport. See "Emergency Vehicles and Equipment" for more information on ETVs. The ETV should be appropriate for the terrain to be traversed and the injured or ill worker's condition. The situations for upgrading are listed in the tables in Column 5 (Other Considerations).

Keep in mind the types of potential injuries you identified in Step 2(c). Make sure that the level of attendant and the supplies and equipment are sufficient to deal with any identified delays in reaching medical treatment.

At the end of Step 5
You have determined the first aid services appropriate for your workplace. Add this information to the worksheet. First aid services must meet or exceed the minimum levels required in Schedule 3A.

Step 6:
Review your assessment.

The first aid assessment must be reviewed annually or whenever a significant change in operations occurs. Keep written records of the results of your review.

G3.17 Developing and implementing first aid procedures

Issued March 30, 2004

Section 3.17 of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation ("Regulation") states:

(1) The employer must keep up-to-date written procedures for providing first aid at the worksite including

(a) the equipment, supplies, facilities, first aid attendants and services available,

(b) the location of, and how to call for, first aid,

(c) how the first aid attendant is to respond to a call for first aid,

(d) the authority of the first aid attendant over the treatment of injured workers and the responsibility of the employer to report injuries to the board,

(e) who is to call for transportation for the injured worker, and the method of transportation and calling, and

(f) prearranged routes in and out of the workplace and to medical treatment.

(2) The employer must post the procedures conspicuously in suitable locations throughout the workplace or, if posting is not practicable, the employer must adopt other measures to ensure that the information is effectively communicated to workers.

(3) The first aid attendant and all other persons authorized to call for transportation for injured workers must be trained in the procedures.

A sample of written first aid procedures is available for reference on worksafebc.com.

Drills
To ensure the effectiveness of the employer's first aid service, a drill should be held at least once each year to test:

  • Workers' awareness of the way to summon first aid, the effectiveness of the communication system, and the ability of the first aid attendant to respond to being summoned
  • The capacity of the first aid service to treat injuries or illnesses of the type likely to occur in the workplace

Maintaining the system
The employer should assign personnel to manage the first aid service at the workplace. That person's duties should include ensuring that the required attendants, supplies, facilities, and equipment are always available. This would include ensuring that attendants are replaced when they are absent or leave the employ of the employer and that supplies are replenished as they are used.

G3.17(1)-1 Implementing an early defibrillation program in the workplace

Withdrawn November 1, 2010

G3.18(1) Communications

Issued March 30, 2004

Section 3.18(1) of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation states:

(1) The employer must provide an effective means for

(a) communication between the first aid attendant and the workers served, and

(b) the first aid attendant to call for assistance.

This guideline suggests suitable means of communication between the first aid attendant and workers.

There is an "effective means" of communication if workers throughout the workplace know how to alert the first aid attendant that service is required. That system could consist of a whistle, siren, series of lights, pager, two-way radios, or portable phones that the first aid attendant would see or hear and that would enable the attendant to know where to respond.

"Assistance" in section 3.18(1)(b) may include assistance from other workers, the B.C. Ambulance Service, or another ambulance service acceptable to WorkSafeBC.

G3.18(2) Availability of first aid attendant

Issued March 30, 2004

Section 3.18(2) of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation ("Regulation") states:

The employer must not assign, and the first aid attendant must not undertake, employment activities that will interfere with the attendant's ability to receive and respond to a request for first aid.

This guideline discusses how to ensure that the first aid attendant is available to render first aid promptly, as required by section 3.16(1).

In order to provide effective treatment, the equipment, facilities, and attendant must be accessible and first aid must be administered to the worker as soon as practicable after the injury or disease, in accordance with the practices and standards found in the attendant's training program.

The following principles apply in determining whether the first aid service has been properly provided:

  • An attendant should actually be present in the area served, during all working hours. This includes periods such as lunch or coffee breaks when workers are on shift and at the workplace but not actually working.
  • The attendant, equipment, and facilities must be ready to receive the injured worker or to depart to where the worker is situated without delay, usually within 3 to 5 minutes of being summoned. (This allows the attendant time to clean up as needed, either take off coveralls or put on clean coveralls, and obtain the first aid kit.)
  • The location of the central first aid service should be readily accessible. A service will be readily accessible where it is within 10 minutes' walking time (or driving time, where vehicles are normally used for general movement within the workplace) for all workers in a workplace. Alternatively, the service is readily accessible where the attendant can reach injured workers within 10 minutes' walking time (or driving time) to render first aid.

Backup for absent first aid attendant
Absences from the workplace by first aid attendants may be planned (such as vacations or medical appointments) or unplanned (such as travelling with an injured worker to hospital or being absent because of sickness). Since it is foreseeable that planned and unplanned absences will occur, the employer will be expected to have a procedure for dealing with them.

Where planned absences may leave on duty fewer than the required number of attendants, the employer should have a substitute first aid attendant available as soon as the absence commences. With regard to unplanned absences, an absence of up to approximately half a shift is permissible until a replacement attendant is in place.

G3.19 First aid records

Issued March 30, 2004; Revised March 5, 2013

Regulatory excerpt
Section 3.19 of the OHS Regulation ("Regulation") states:

(1) The employer must maintain at the workplace, in a form acceptable to the Board, a record of all injuries and exposures to contaminants covered by this Regulation that are reported or treated.

(2) First aid records must be kept for at least 3 years.

(3) First aid records are to be kept confidential and may not be disclosed except as permitted by this Regulation or otherwise permitted by law.

(4) First aid records must be available for inspection by an officer of the Board.

(5) Workers may request or authorize access to their first aid records for any treatment or report about themselves.

Purpose of guideline
This guideline outlines what form of record-keeping is acceptable to WorkSafeBC and what access to records is needed.

Acceptable record-keeping
Records containing the following information are acceptable to WorkSafeBC:

  • The full name and occupation of the worker
  • The date and time of injury or report of exposure or illness
  • The date and time the injury, exposure, disease, or illness was reported to the employer or employer's representative
  • The names of witnesses
  • A description of how the injury, exposure, disease, or illness occurred
  • A description of the nature of the injury, exposure, disease, or illness
  • A description of the treatment given and any arrangements made relating to the worker (return to work/medical aid/ambulance/follow-up)
  • A description of any subsequent treatment given for the same injury, exposure, disease, or illness
  • The signature of the attendant or person giving first aid, and if possible, the signature of the worker receiving treatment

Access to records
Only people who have a need to review first aid records may have access. For example this may include the following:

  • A worker's direct supervisor
  • The worker (his or her own records)
  • A person designated by the employer to manage health & safety and/or compensation claims and/or return to work programs at the workplace
  • First aid attendants at the workplace
  • A WorkSafeBC prevention officer

Joint committee members and worker health and safety representatives do not have a need for full access. A report containing a summary of the records is sufficient for committee purposes.

In a multi-employer worksite first aid records are owned by the employer of the injured worker. During the course of the project records may be maintained by the employer providing the first aid services. Access is as listed above, but may also include the prime contractor if required for purposes of coordination of health and safety of the worksite. Once the project is complete, or if an individual employer's work on that site is complete, the records must be retained by the individual employer for at least three years.

Where a person is entitled to have access under section 3.19, the access may not extend to all of the records. It is limited to the minimum necessary to satisfy the purpose for which the access is required. If, for instance, access is required to investigate a claim for compensation, it would be limited to the records of the individual making the claim.

G3.20 Multiple employer workplaces

Issued March 30, 2004; Editorial Revision February 1, 2008

Regulatory excerpt
Section 3.20 of the OHS Regulation ("Regulation") states:

If workers of 2 or more employers are working at a workplace at the same time, the prime contractor must

(a) conduct an assessment of the circumstances of the workplace under section 3.16(2) in relation to all the workers in the workplace, and

(b) do everything that is reasonably practicable to establish and maintain the first aid equipment, supplies, facilities, first aid attendants and services required under section 3.16.

Purpose of guideline
The purpose of this guideline is to discuss the role of the prime contractor in providing first aid services. It also considers situations where a group of employers with adjacent workplaces provide a common first aid service.

Role of the prime contractor
The prime contractor will normally set up a central first aid service for the whole workplace or arrange for a subcontractor to do this. The prime contractor is the person defined under the Workers Compensation Act ("Act") as the owner of the workplace unless the owner enters into a written agreement with another party to assume the responsibilities of the prime contractor.

Where the first aid service is provided by agreement with another person or persons, the following guidelines are recommended:

  • The service should meet the requirements as to hazard classification, distance from hospital, and number of workers per shift of each workplace using it.
  • In considering the accessibility of the service, the demands on it by all workplaces using it must be considered. The number of workers per shift used to determine the level of service is the total number of workers in all these workplaces. In addition, consider any use of the service by members of the public visiting these workplaces.
  • In determining the location of the service, consider the need to provide first aid promptly. Also consider whether any workplaces are likely to create greater hazards and therefore make more use of the service.
  • The level and location of the service must allow for any restrictions on access that may occur at peak work periods.
  • Each employer participating in the service must separately comply with the obligation in section 3.19(1) to maintain records of all injuries and manifestations of disease at their own workplace. The service may also keep central records.
  • The service and each employer must restrict access to any first aid records to the persons authorized by section 3.19(3). Any person who has access to the records must under section 3.19(5) keep them confidential except as required for the legitimate purpose of their access.

The employer retains full legal responsibility for providing all first aid services for the workplace as required by Part 3 of the Regulation. If the service does not meet an obligation imposed on the employer, WorkSafeBC will hold the employer responsible, not the person agreeing to supply the service.

G3.21 Suspension and cancellation of first aid certificates

Issued August 31, 2007

Regulatory excerpt
Section 3.21 of the OHS Regulation ("Regulation") states:

(1) The first aid attendant must

(a) promptly provide injured workers with a level of care within the scope of the attendant's training and this Part,

(b) objectively record observed or reported signs and symptoms of injuries and exposures to contaminants covered by this Regulation, and

(c) refer for medical treatment workers with injuries considered by the first aid attendant as being serious or beyond the scope of the attendant's training.

(2) A first aid attendant must be physically and mentally capable of safely and effectively performing the required duties, and the Board may at any time require the attendant to provide a medical certificate.

(3) The first aid attendant is responsible, and has full authority, for all first aid treatment of an injured worker until responsibility for treatment is accepted

(a) at a place of medical treatment,

(b) by an ambulance service acceptable to the Board, or

(c) by a person with higher or equivalent first aid certification.

Section 195 of the Workers Compensation Act ("Act") provides:

195

(1) If the Board has reasonable grounds for believing that a person who holds a certificate issued under this Part or the regulations has breached a term or condition of the certificate or has otherwise contravened a provision of this Part or the regulations, the Board may, by order,

(a) cancel or suspend the certificate, or

(b) place a condition on the use of that certificate that the Board considers is necessary in the circumstances.

(2) An order under this section suspending a certificate must specify the length of time that the suspension is in effect or the condition that must be met before the suspension is no longer in effect.

Purpose of guideline
This guideline sets out the circumstances in which WorkSafeBC will consider suspending or cancelling a first aid certificate, and discusses the process by which first aid certificates are suspended or cancelled.

Background
Occupational first aid certificates are issued to first aid attendants by first aid agencies on behalf of WorkSafeBC. These agencies enter into an agreement with WorkSafeBC that permits them to issue first aid certificates to individuals.

WorkSafeBC has the authority to suspend or cancel these first aid certificates under section 195 of the Act.

Where a WorkSafeBC certification or prevention officer (officer) learns of circumstances that may indicate a lack of competence or misconduct on the part of a first aid attendant, the officer may consider suspending the attendant's certificate. The Manager of Certification Services may then consider further action, which could involve cancellation of the certificate.

When may a first aid certificate be suspended or cancelled?
Under section 195 of the Act, WorkSafeBC may cancel or suspend a first aid certificate where it has "reasonable grounds for believing" that the holder has

  • Breached a term or condition of the certificate
  • Contravened a provision of Part 3 of the Act or the Regulation

Section 3.21 of the Regulation sets out the requirements for the first aid attendant. The failure of an attendant to meet these obligations would be a contravention of the Regulation for the purposes of s.195 and may provide grounds for the suspension or cancellation of the certificate. Such circumstances would include failing to

  • Promptly provide injured workers with a level of care within the scope of the attendant's training and in accordance with sections 3.14 through 3.21 of the Regulation
  • Objectively record observed or reported signs and symptoms of injuries and exposures to contaminants
  • Refer for medical treatment workers with injuries considered by the first aid attendant as being serious or beyond the scope of the attendant's training
  • Be physically and mentally capable of safely and effectively performing the required duties

Policy D12-195-1 sets out an additional list of inappropriate conduct for first aid attendants, which may be considered to be failing to provide workers with an appropriate level of care under section 3.21, including

  • Smoking while assessing or treating an injured worker and/or while handling oxygen therapy equipment, or permitting others to do so
  • Failing to use the assessment and injury treatment techniques outlined in first aid training courses unless conditions precluded them
  • Conduct that poses an unreasonable threat to the safety and well-being of other workers or the public
  • Removing themselves from being able to see or hear any summons for first aid at a workplace
  • Abandoning an injured worker after beginning assessment or treatment
  • Refusing to treat an injured worker when acting as a designated first aid attendant
  • Treating or transporting an injured worker while impaired or under the influence of drugs or alcohol

Failing to provide competent care, failing to ensure first aid records are kept, and using intoxicants while on duty are common grounds for suspending and/or cancelling of certificates.

Process for suspending or cancelling a first aid certificate
There are two stages to suspending and/or cancelling of an occupational first aid certificate. The first stage, a temporary suspension, involves an officer seizing the certificate from the attendant and forwarding it to the Manager of Certification Services. The second stage involves the Manager of Certification Services reviewing the circumstances leading to the suspension and making a determination on what further action should be taken. The Manager may cancel the certificate, return it to the attendant, or place conditions based on the review.

Stage 1: Officer's Interim Suspension
Before a first aid certificate may be suspended or cancelled, WorkSafeBC must have "reasonable grounds for believing" that a contravention of the Act or Regulation or a breach of the terms of the attendant's certificate has occurred. While a finding of "reasonable grounds" does not require absolute proof that circumstances amounting to non-compliance have occurred, it does require that the officer undertake an investigation of the circumstances in question to ensure the suspension or cancellation is reasonable.

The officer's investigation should include the following:

  1. Review the employer's incident investigation document
  2. Review the worksite written procedures to ensure there is clear direction for attendant response
  3. Inspect attendant training and orientation records
  4. Provide the attendant an opportunity to offer his/her account of the circumstances
  5. Interview all persons who may have relevant information before making the decision to suspend the certificate

Once the investigation is complete, and the officer thinks there are reasonable grounds for concluding that the attendant has failed to comply with the Act, Regulation, or the terms of the certificate, the officer will

  1. Issue an Order to Worker suspending the first aid certificate

    This order must specify the length of time that the suspension is in effect (as required by s.195(2) of the Act). The duration of the suspension may be up to seven days pending review by the Manager of Certification Services.

    Note: The officer may also consider issuing orders to the employer or other workplace parties in connection with the circumstances, as appropriate.
  2. Notify the employer of the suspension of the certificate
  3. Forward evidence supporting the suspension, any evidence offered by the attendant in his/her defense, and the outcome of the employer's investigation to Certification Services

Stage 2: Cancellation or Other Action
Once the officer's evidence is forwarded to Certification Services, the Manager of Certification Services will undertake a review of the circumstances and make a final determination with respect to the first aid certificate. This may include issuing a warning, placing a condition on the certificate, further suspension, or cancellation of the certificate.

The type of action the Manager takes will depend on the circumstances of each case. Factors that will be considered include

  • The risk of harm to workers caused by the breach, the potential severity of that harm, and the number of workers put at risk
  • The potential for future risk to workers should the attendant be allowed to continue to provide services
  • Whether the breach was caused by carelessness, recklessness, willful blindness, or intentionally
  • The need to maintain public or stakeholder confidence in first aid services in general

Once the Manager has made a determination, a letter is forwarded to the attendant notifying him/her of the Manager's decision and specifying the conditions under which reinstatement may occur. The letter also advises of the right to appeal. A "Request for Review" form is included with the letter.

The employer is notified if the attendant's certificate is cancelled. The training agency that issued the certificate is also notified of the cancellation.

Review and Appeal
Section 96.2(1)(c) of the Act provides that a person may request a review officer to review "a WorkSafeBC order, a refusal to make a WorkSafeBC order, a variation of a WorkSafeBC order or a cancellation of a WorkSafeBC order respecting an occupational health or safety matter under Part 3." Please refer to the "Reviews and Appeals" section of the OFA1 Standard.

Guidelines Part 3 - First aid supplementary materials

The following supplementary materials support OHS guidelines G3.14 to G3.20:

Assigned Hazard Rating List

Download PDF version of list.

"L" represents low;
"M" represents moderate;
"H" represents high

N.E.S. means not elsewhere specified

 

Abrasives-Mfg. M
Acetylene Gas-Mfg. H
Acetylene Welding M
Acids-Mfg. M
Acoustical Contractors M
Adding Machines-Mfg. or repairs L
Aerials-Erection H
Air Conditioning Contractors M
Air Transportation-Air Personnel M
Air Transportation-Ground Personnel M
Airport Construction H
Alcoholic Beverages-Mfg. M
Alkalis-Mfg. M
Aluminum-Smelter H
Ambulance Service M
Amusement Parks L
Animal Breeding M
Animal Foods-Canning M
Apartment Buildings-Operation L
Apiary L
Appliance Rental L
Appliances-Household Electrical-Mfg. or Repairs M
Appliances-Transmission Line-installation H
Architecture L
Argent Recovery Process L
Armaments-Mfg. H
Armature Rewinding-Small Motors-No Installation Work M
Arsenical Products-Mfg. M
Artificial Ice-Mfg. M
Artificial Insemination Station M
Artificial Limbs-Mfg. M
Asbestos Mining H
Asphalt Paving Material-Mfg. H
Asphalt Roofing-Application H
Asphalt Roofing, Shingles, Siding or Tile-Mfg. M
Assaying M
Auctioneering Establishment L
Auto Courts or Trailer Courts L
Automobile Driving Schools L
Automobile Painting, Repairs or Sales M
Automobile Rental L
Automobile Springs-Mfg. M
Avalanche Control H
Awnings-Mfg. M
Babbitt-Mfg. M
Baggage Transfer Service M
Bags-Plastic or Paper-Mfg. M
Bags or Trunks-Mfg. M
Bakeries or Distribution of Bakery Products M
Barber Shops L
Barber Supply Houses L
Barrels-Wooden-Mfg. H
Bath Service-Steam L
Batteries-Mfg. M
Beauticians' Supply Houses L
Beauty Salons L
Beds-Iron or Bedsprings-Mfg. M
Beekeeping L
Belting-Rubber-Mfg. M
Berry Farms M
Beverages-Alcoholic-Mfg. M
Beverage-Non Alcoholic-Mfg. M
Bicycle Repair Shops L
Billiard Equipment-Installation or Repairs M
Billiard Parlours L
Biscuits-Mfg. M
Blacksmithing M
Blasting Work as a Business H
Blinds-Venetian-Metal-Mfg. M
Blinds-Venetian-Wooden-Mfg. M
Blinds-Window-Cloth-Mfg. M
Boarding Car Operations L
Boats-Plastic-Mfg. M
Bodies-Truck or Trailer-Mfg. M
Boilers-Installation or Removal H
Boilers-Mfg. H
Bolts-Mfg. M
Bookbinding L
Booming Ground Operations H
Booming or Log Sorting H
Bowling Alleys L
Bowling Equipment-Installation or Repairs M
Bowling-Lawn-Clubs L
Boxes-Cardboard or Plastic-Mfg. M
Bricks-Mfg M
Bridge Construction H
Bridge Construction H
Bridge Operations L
Broadcasting Stations L
Brooms or Brushes-Mfg. M
Builders Supply Yards M
Building Construction H
Building Construction-Non Industrial, N.E.S. H
Building Moving H
Buildings-Apartments or Commercial-Operation L
Buildings-Electrical Wiring M
Buildings-Insulation M
Buildings-Steam Cleaning-External M
Bulldozer Operations as a Business H
Bus Lines-Maintenance or Operation M
Bus Services-Chartered-Operation L
Buttons-Mfg. L
Cabarets L
Cabinet making without Machinery M
Cable Television Service L
Cafes or Coffee Shops L
Canning Animal Foods M
Canning Meats M
Canning or Packing Fruits or Vegetables M
Canning or Processing Fish M
Canoes-Construction M
Cans-Mfg. M
Canvas Work-Mfg. M
Car Wash L
Cardboard Boxes-Mfg. M
Carpenter Shops M
Carpet Laying M
Carpets-Mfg. M
Cartage or Express Service M
Cash Registers-Mfg. or Repairs L
Catering-Industrial L
Catering, N.E.S. L
Causeways or Jetties-Construction H
Cement-Mfg. M
Cement Blocks-Mfg. M
Cement Products-Mfg., N.E.S. M
Cement Work, N.E.S. M
Cemetery Operations M
Chair Lifts or Ski Tows-Operation M
Charcoal-Mfg. M
Chemicals-Mfg., N.E.S. M
Chicken Catching L
Chimney Cleaning M
Christmas Tree Cutting M
Christmas Tree Farms-Operation M
Cigars-Mfg. L
Clay Mining H
Clay Ornaments-Mfg. L
Cleaning-Buildings-Steam-External M
Cleaning-Chimney M
Cleaning Compounds-Mfg. M
Cleaning or Dyeing Service L
Cleaning-Windows M
Clerical Employees-Supplying as a Business L
Clinics L
Cloth-Mfg. M
Cloth Window Blinds or Clothing-Mfg. M
Clubs-Private L
Coal Mining H
Coal Yards-Operation M
Coffee-Roasting M
Coffins-Wooden-Mfg. M
Cold Storage Plants H
Collection-Fish M
Collection-Kelp M
Commercial Buildings-Operation L
Commercial Diving H
Commercial Properties-Operation L
Communication Systems M
Compressed Sawdust Fire Logs-Mfg. M
Concrete Beams-Prestressed-Mfg. M
Concrete Products-Mfg., N.E.S M
Concrete Work-Reinforced, N.E.S M
Confectionery-Mfg. M
Consulting Engineering L
Containers-Cardboard or Plastic-Mfg. M
Cooperage H
Corrosion-Control-Electrical L
Cosmetics-Mfg. L
Creosoting M
Crop-dusting or Spraying by Aircraft H
Crushing-Stone M
Cultivation-Oyster M
Curing Hides M
Curling Rinks L
Cushions-Mfg. M
Dairy Farming H
Dairy Products-Distribution M
Dam-Construction H
Dance Halls as a Business L
Delicatessen Products-Mfg. M
Delivery Service M
Demolition-Bldgs. H
Dental Laboratories L
Dental Supply Houses L
Department Stores L
Diamond Drilling H
Diaper Service L
Die Casting or Die Making M
Digging-Water Well H
Display Painting-Shop Only L
Distilleries M
Distribution of Automatic Amusement, Music or Vending Machines or Devices M
Dive Fishing H
Domestic or other Household Employees L
Drapes-Mfg. L
Dredging H
Drilling-Diamond H
Drilling N.E.S. H
Drilling-Oil or Gas Well, N.E.S. H
Drilling-Oil or Gas Well-Offshore H
Drilling-Water Well H
Driving Schools L
Drugs-Mfg. M
Dry-cleaning-Clothing L
Dry Docks-Construction H
Dry Docks-Operation H
Drywall Contractors M
Dyeing L
Dykes-Construction or Repair H
Egg Farming L
Electric Contractors M
Electric Light and Power Plants-Construction by an Electric Light and Power Company for the purpose of its Business H
Electric Light and Power Plants and Lines-Operation M
Electric Lighting Systems-Construction or Installation, N.E.S. H
Electric Railways-Maintenance or Operation H
Electric Welding M
Electrical Appliances-Household-Mfg. or Repairs M
Electrical Control Panels-Mfg. M
Electrical Corrosion Control L
Electrical Wiring of Buildings M
Electroplating M
Elevators-Installation-Mfg. or Repairs M
Employers' Associations L
Enamelling-Metal M
Enamelling-Porcelain M
Engineering-Consulting L
Engines-Installation or Removal M
Engines-Mfg. M
Engraving L
Envelopes-Mfg. M
Equipment-Heavy-Sales, Service, Rental or Repair M
Excavation Work as an industry H
Excelsior-Mfg. M
Explosives-Mfg. H
Exterminating Service L
Extracts-Flavouring-Mfg. M
Farm Labour Supply (* Adopt the hazard classification of the commodity group to which labour is supplied.) *
Farm Services (where not directly related to other farming industries. This category covers the use of harvesting equipment) H
Feed Lots H
Feed or Farm Supply Dealers M
Ferries M
Fertilizer-Fish-Mfg. M
Fertilizer-Mfg., N.E.S. M
Film Distribution L
Finance L
Fire-fighting H
Fish-Canning or Processing M
Fish Collection M
Fish Fertilizer or Fish Oil-Mfg. M
Fish Wholesaling M
Fishing M
Fishing-Independent Operators M
Flakeboard-Mfg. H
Floor Cleaning or Floor Waxing Service L
Floor Laying M
Florists L
Flour Mills M
Flumes-Construction H
Flying Schools M
Food Products-Mfg., N.E.S. M
Food Products-Misc.-Mfg. M
Foundries H
Freighting, N.E.S. M
Frozen Dinners-Mfg. L
Fruit-Canning or Packing M
Fuel Yards or Fuel Distribution M
Fumigating Service L
Funeral Undertaking L
Fur Goods Industry L
Furnaces-Mfg. M
Furniture-Mfg. M
Furniture Making-without Machinery M
Furniture-Metal-Mfg. M
Furniture-Upholstering L
Galvanizing M
Garages M
Garbage Collection Service M
Gardening (Exclusive of market gardening) or Landscape Gardening M
Gas-Acetylene-Mfg. H
Gas-Natural-Distribution System Operation (Exclusive of Trans-Provincial Pipeline Systems) M
Gas-Natural-or Oil Pipeline Construction H
Gas or Oil Producers-Explorers-Developers H
Gas or Oil Well Drilling, N.E.S. H
Gas or Oil Well Drilling-Offshore H
Gas or Oil Well Servicing by means of Service Rigs H
Gas or Oil Well Servicing by means other than Service Rigs H
Gas-Propane-Distribution H
Geophysical Contractors H
Glass Bottles or Jars-Reconditioning or Mfg. H
Glass Cutting-Polishing-Grinding M
Glass Products-Mfg., N.E.S. M
Golf Courses, Ranges or Clubs L
Grain Elevators M
Grain Farming H
Grain Lining H
Gravel Pits H
Gravel or Tar Roofing H
Gravelling-Roads, Runways or Sidewalks M
Greenhouse-Operation M
Guns-Mfg. M
Gypsum-Mfg. M
Hairdressing Establishments L
Hardboard-Mfg. H
Hats-Mfg. L
Hauling M
Hauling Logs H
Hay Farming or Haying H
Health Clubs or Spa L
Heating Equipment-Installation or Servicing, N.E.S. M
Heating Plants or Systems, N.E.S. M
Hides-Curing or Wholesale Raw M
Hobby Shops L
Hog Farming M
Hop Growing M
Horse Race Courses L
Horticultural Nurseries L
Hose-Rubber-Mfg. M
Hospitals L
Hospitals-Government M
Hospitals-Veterinary L
Hot Metal Operations H
Hotels L
Household Electrical Appliances-Mfg. or Repairs M
Household or Other Domestic Employees L
House Moving or Raising H
Ice-Artificial-Mfg. M
Ice Cream-Mfg. M
Ice Distribution, Handling or Harvesting M
Ice Rinks L
Industrial Catering L
Industrial Properties-Operation L
Industrial Testing M
Ink-Mfg. M
Insecticides-Mfg., N.E.S. M
Installation-Boilers, Engines or Machinery H
Insulating-Buildings M
Insurance L
Interior Decorating or Designing Service L
Iron Beds-Mfg. M
Iron Works-Ornamental-Installation M
Irrigation Works-Operation or Maintenance M
Janitor Service M
Jetties or Causeways-Construction H
Jewellery-Mfg. L
Junk Dealers H
Kelp Collection M
Kiln Drying H
Kilns-Lime M
Knitting Mills M
Labour Unions L
Laminated Beams-Mfg. M
Lamp Shades-Mfg. L
Land Clearing or Grading as an Industry H
Land Surveying M
Landscape Gardening M
Lathing M
Laundry Service M
Law Business L
Lawn Bowling Clubs L
Lead Articles-Mfg. M
Leather Goods-Repairs, N.E.S. L
Leather Good Shops-Assembly or Repairs L
Lens Grinding L
Licensed Public Houses or Lounges when operated by a separate company L
Light and Power Plants M
Lighting Fixtures-Mfg. M
Lighting Systems-Electric Construction or Installation, N.E.S. M
Lime Kilns M
Lime Quarrying H
Linen Supply Service L
Linoleum Laying M
Lithographing M
Locksmiths L
Lodging Houses-Operation L
Logging H
Log Hauling H
Log Sorting or Booming H
Logs-Sawdust-Compressed-Fire-Mfg. M
Lumber-Kiln Drying H
Lumber Yards M
Macaroni-Mfg. M
Machine Shops M
Machinery-Installation or Removal M
Machinery-Rental M
Manufacturers' Agents L
Marina Operation M
Marine Elevators-Installation M
Marine Railway Operation H
Marine Salvage H
Masonry M
Matches-Mfg. M
Mats-Rubber-Mfg. M
Mattresses-Mfg. M
Meat Packers M
Meat Pies-Mfg. M
Meat Products-Prepared-Curing-Smoking-Mfg. M
Meats-Canning M
Meats-Wholesaling M
Medicines-Mfg. L
Messenger Service M
Metal Articles-Sheet-Mfg. M
Metal Enamelling M
Metal Furniture-Mfg. M
Metal Mining H
Metal Pipe-Mfg. H
Metal Products-Small-Assembly M
Metal-Scrap-Handling H
Metal-Sheet-Erection or Repairs M
Metal-Stamp-Assembly M
Metal Venetian Blinds-Mfg. M
Metalware-Small-Mfg., N.E.S. M
Microwave Systems L
Milling-Flour M
Milling-Rice M
Mining-Clay H
Mining-Coal H
Mining-Metal H
Mink Farming L
Mixed Farming (eg. grains, cattle, hogs) H
Monument Lettering or Setting L
Mops-Mfg. M
Motels L
Motion Picture Houses-Operation L
Motion Picture Production M
Mouldings-Rubber-Mfg. M
Moving Buildings H
Moving and Storage M
Mucilage-Mfg. M
Mushroom Growing M
Nails-Mfg. M
Natural Gas Distribution Systems-Operation (Exclusive of Trans-Provincial Pipeline Systems) M
Natural Gas or Oil Pipelines-Operation M
Navigation Services H
Neon Signs-Installation or Mfg. M
Night Clubs L
Non-Alcoholic Beverages-Mfg. M
Non-Industrial Building Construction, N.E.S. H
Noodles-Mfg. M
Nurseries-Horticultural L
Nursing Homes L
Nuts-Mfg. M
Offshore Oil or Gas Well Drilling H
Oil Distribution M
Oil-Fish-Mfg. M
Oil or Gas Producers-Explorers-Developers H
Oil or Gas Well Drilling, N.E.S. H
Oil or Gas Well Drilling-Offshore H
Oil or Gas Well Servicing by means of Service Rigs H
Oil or Gas Well Servicing by means other than Service Rigs H
Oil or Natural Gas Pipelines-Construction H
Oil or Natural Gas Pipeline-Operation M
Oil Refining M
Optical Goods-Mfg. L
Orchards M
Ore-Reduction, N.E.S. H
Ornamental Iron Work-Installation M
Ornamental Iron Work-Mfg. M
Outboard Motors-Repair or Service M
Oxygen-Compressed or Liquified-Mfg. M
Oyster-Cultivation M
Packing or Canning Fruit or Vegetables M
Packing-Meat M
Pails-Wooden-Mfg. M
Paint-Mfg. M
Painting M
Painting-Automobile M
Painting-Show-card or Display-Shop Only L
Painting-Steel Frame M
Panels-Electrical-Control-Mfg. M
Paper-Asphalt or Building-Mfg. H
Paper Bags-Mfg. M
Paper Hanging L
Paper Mills H
Paper Products-Mfg., N.E.S. M
Paper-Tar-Mfg. M
Parcel Delivery Service M
Park Operations L
Parking Lots L
Patrolmen-Private L
Paving Material-Asphalt-Mfg. H
Peanut Butter-Mfg. L
Peat Digging or Processing H
Pharmaceuticals-Mfg. L
Phenol and like Petrochemicals, Mfg., N.E.S. M
Photographic Film Processing or Photography Studios L
Physicians' Supply Houses L
Physiotherapy Equipment-Mfg. or Repairs L
Pianos-Mfg. or Repairs L
Picture Framing L
Piers-Construction H
Pile Driving H
Pilot Car Service L
Pipe Fitting M
Pipeline-Oil or Natural Gas-Construction H
Pipeline-Oil or Natural Gas-Operation M
Pipe-Wooden-Mfg. H
Pitch-Mfg. M
Planing Mills H
Plaster Ornaments-Mfg. L
Plastering M
Plastic Bags-Mfg. M
Plastic Boats-Mfg. M
Plastic Boxes-Containers-Mfg. M
Plastics-Small Articles-Assembly L
Plastics or Synthetic Resins-Mfg. M
Plating L
Plumbing or Heating M
Plywood-Mfg. H
Pole Manufacturing Plants-Operation-when such operation is conducted as a separate industry H
Police Services H
Polish-Mfg. M
Porcelain Enamelling M
Pottery-Mfg. L
Poultry Dressing or Processing M
Poultry Farming L
Poultry Hatcheries (Where not a farming operation) L
Power and Light Plants or Lines-Electric-Operation M
Precision Instruments-Assembly M
Prestressed Concrete Beams-Mfg. H
Printing L
Private Clubs L
Private Schools, N.E.S. L
Processing or Canning Fish M
Professional Dive Instructor/Guide M
Propane Gas-Distribution H
Public Utilities, N.E.S. M
Publishing when accompanied with Printing M
Pulp or Paper H
Putty-Mfg. M
Quarrying-Gravel, Sand or Shale H
Quarrying-Lime H
Quarrying-Stone H
Rabbit Farming L
Race Courses-Horse L
Radar Systems-Installation or Maintenance M
Radio Broadcasting L
Radios-Mfg. or Repairs L
Railway Construction or Demolition, N.E.S H
Railway Maintenance, N.E.S. H
Ranching H
Real Estate L
Reduction-Ore, N.E.S. H
Refining-Oil M
Refrigeration Equipment-Installation or Repairs, N.E.S. M
Refrigerators-Mfg. M
Reinforced Concrete Work M
Removal-Boilers, Engines or Machinery H
Rental-Appliances L
Rental-Automobiles or Trucks L
Rental-Machinery-Heavy Equipment M
Repair-Dykes H
Repair-Elevators M
Repair-Outboard Motors and other small Gasoline Engines M
Repair-Refrigeration Equipment, N.E.S. M
Repair-Sheet Metal M
Repair-Steel Frame M
Repair of all Vessels H
Reservoirs-Construction H
Resin-Synthetic-Compounds-Mfg. M
Resin-Synthetic-Mfg. M
Rest Homes L
Restaurants L
Retail Stores L
Rice Milling M
Road Construction H
Roads-Gravelling or Surfacing M
Rock Tunnelling, N.E.S. H
Rock Wool-Mfg. M
Roller Rinks L
Rolling Mills H
Roofing-Asphalt-Mfg. M
Roofing Contractors - Steep Slope H
Roofing-Tar or Gravel H
Roofing-Tar Saturated-Felt-Mfg. M
Roofing Waterproof Fabric-Mfg. M
Rooming Houses having ten or more bedrooms L
Ropes-Mfg. M
Rowboats-Construction M
Rubber Belting-Mfg. M
Rubber Goods-Small-Mfg. L
Rubber-Small Articles-Assembly L
Rubbish Removal M
Runways-Gravelling or Surfacing M
Sails-Mfg. M
Salts-Mfg. M
Salvage-Marine H
Sanatoria L
Sand Blasting M
Sand Pits H
Sanitation Service M
Sash and Door Factories H
Sausage or Sausage Casings-Mfg. M
Saw-Mfg. or Repairing M
Sawdust Fire Logs-Compressed-Mfg. M
Sawdust Yards M
Sawmills H
Scaffolding Rental M
Scales-Assembly M
School Bus Service-Operation L
Schools-Driving-Automobile L
Schools-Municipal L
Schools-Private, N.E.S. L
Scrap Metal-Handling H
Security Service L
Seed Farming M
Septic Tank Service M
Service of Outboard Motors or other Small Gasoline Engines M
Service Stations L
Servicing Heating Equipment, N.E.S. M
Servicing of Oil or Gas Wells by means of Service Rigs H
Servicing of Oil or Gas Wells by means other than Service Rigs H
Sewer Construction, Sewers or Sewage Disposal Plants or Systems H
Shale Pits H
Sheep Farming M
Sheet Metal Work M
Shingle or Shake Mills H
Shingles-Asphalt-Mfg. H
Shipbuilding-Canoes or Rowboats M
Shipbuilding-Steel H
Shipbuilding-Wooden H
Shipping Services, N.E.S. M
Ships-Operation L
Shoe Repairing L
Shoe-Mfg. M
Shopping Centres-Operation L
Showcard Painting-Shop Only L
Sidewalks-Gravelling or Surfacing M
Siding-Asphalt-Mfg. M
Silverplating L
Sintering-Tungsten M
Skating Rinks L
Ski-Tows-Operation M
Small Metal Products-Assembly L
Small Rubber Goods-Mfg. L
Smelter-Aluminum H
Snow or Ice Removal as a Business M
Soap-Mfg. M
Soya Bean Paste-Mfg. L
Spaghetti-Mfg. M
Spices-packaged-Mfg. M
Spikes-Mfg. L
Spinning Mills M
Spokes-Wooden-Mfg. M
Springs-Automobile-Mfg. M
Stamps-Metal-Assembly M
Stamps-Rubber-Mfg. M
Stationery-Mfg. M
Staves or Heads-Mfg. H
Steam Bath Service L
Steam Cleaning Buildings-External M
Steel Fabrication H
Steel Frame Erection or Repairs H
Steel Frame Painting M
Steel Shipbuilding H
Stevedoring H
Stockyards M
Stone Crushing M
Stone Cutting or Dressing M
Stores-Retail L
Stoves-Mfg. M
Street Cleaning M
Stucco-Mfg. M
Sugar-Mfg. M
Supplying Clerical Employees as a Business L
Supplying Manpower other than Clerical Employees as a Business L
Surfacing-Roads, Runways or Sidewalks M
Synthetic Resin Compounds-Mfg. M
Synthetic Resins-Mfg. M
Syrups-Mfg. L
Tailor Shops L
Tanks-Erection or Installation H
Tanneries-Operation M
Tar-Mfg. M
Tar or Gravel Roofing H
Tar Saturated Felt Roofing-Mfg. M
Taxi Cab Business L
Tea Blending L
Telegraph Systems-Operation L
Telephone Systems-Operation L
Television Receivers-Mfg. or Repairs L
Tennis Clubs L
Tents-Mfg. M
Terrazzo Laying M
Terra Cotta-Mfg. M
Testing-Industrial-Laboratories M
Textiles-Mfg., N.E.S. M
Theatres-Operation L
Threshing H
Tile-Asphalt-Mfg. M
Tile Contractors M
Tiles-Mfg. M
Tinning M
Tinware or Tinware Products-Mfg. M
Tires-Rubber-Mfg. M
Toilet Preparations-Mfg. L
Tools-Rental L
Tourist Resorts (Where not a part of a ranch operation) L
Toys-Wooden-Mfg. M
Trade Unions L
Trailer Courts L
Trailer Rental or Leasing L
Trailers or Truck Bodies-Mfg., N.E.S. M
Training Walls to Deflect Water-Construction H
Tramways or Cable Cars M
Transmission Line Appliances-Installation H
Transmission Lines or Ducts-Construction H
Travelling Wood Saws M
Tree Service M
Truck Bodies or Trailers-Mfg., N.E.S. M
Truck Rental L
Trucking, N.E.S. M
Trucking-Logs H
Trunks or Bags-Mfg. M
Tugboat Operation M
Tungsten-Sintering M
Tunnelling, N.E.S. H
Tunnelling-Coal Mine H
Tunnelling-Metal Mine H
Tunnelling-Rock H
Twines-Mfg. M
Typewriters-Mfg. or Repairs L
U-Drive Establishments L
Upholstering L
Vacation Resorts L
Vacuum Cleaners-Mfg. or Repairs L
Varnish-Mfg. M
Vegetable Farming M
Vegetable Greenhouses M
Vegetables-Canning or Packing M
Veneer-Mfg. H
Venetian Blinds-Metal-Mfg. M
Venetian Blinds-Wooden-Mfg. M
Vessels-Repair H
Vessels-Steel Construction H
Vessels-Wooden-Construction H
Veterinary Hospitals L
Vineyards L
Warehouses-Public - Operation M
Washing Machines-Mfg. or Repairs L
Watch Repairs or Mfg. L
Waterproof Roofing Fabric-Mfg. M
Water Transportation M
Water Well Digging or Drilling H
Waterworks or Water Treatment Plants or Systems-Construction or Operation-Not Municipal H
Waxes-Household-Mfg. M
Weaving Mills M
Weed Control Products-Mfg., N.E.S. M
Weed Control Service L
Welding Shops M
Well Digging or Drilling-Water H
Wells-Oil or Gas-Servicing by means of Service Rigs H
Wells-Oil or Gas-Servicing by means other than Service Rigs H
Whaling M
Wharf Operations H
Wharves-Construction H
Wholesale Establishment, N.E.S. L
Wholesale Fish M
Wholesale Meats M
Wholesale Raw Hides L
Wholesalers, N.E.S. L
Window Blinds-Cloth-Mfg. M
Window Blinds-Venetian-Metal-Mfg. M
Window Blinds-Venetian-Wooden-Mfg. M
Window Cleaning M
Wire, Wire Fence or Wire Products-Mfg. M
Wood Filler-Mfg. M
Wood Preserving H
Wood Saws-Travelling M
Wood Yards Operation M
Wooden Barrels-Mfg. H
Wooden Box Works H
Wooden Coffins-Mfg. M
Wooden Pipe-Mfg. H
Wooden Spokes or Toys-Mfg. M
Wooden Venetian Blinds-Mfg. M
Wooden Vessels-Construction H
Woodworking Shops M
Wreckers, Auto H
X-ray Equipment-Mfg. or repairs M

Recommended Minimum Levels of First Aid

Note: As of February 1, 2008, the recommended minimum levels of first aid have been replaced with required minimum levels of first aid. See Schedule 3A–Minimum Levels of First Aid in the Regulation.

Types of First Aid Attendants and Training Programs

WorkSafeBC recognizes three types of Occupational First Aid attendants: Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3. WorkSafeBC has developed training courses for each of these levels as well as endorsement training courses that are available to Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 attendants.

All certificates and certificate endorsements are valid for three (3) years. Extensions of the duration of certificates are not permitted.

Level 1 First Aid Certificate
Level 1 certification requires successful completion of an Occupational First Aid Level 1 training course. This is a 7-hour course. Renewal of Level 1 certification requires successful completion of the full course. In some circumstances, restricted Level 1 certificates may be issued to firefighters employed by municipal fire departments who have not taken the course. Restricted Occupational First Aid Level 1 certificates issued to firefighters in a municipal fire department are not transferable outside of the municipal fire service industry.

Level 2 First Aid Certificate
Level 2 certification requires participation in a 36-hour training course and passing an examination acceptable to WorkSafeBC. Renewal is normally accomplished by retaking the course and exam; however, the candidate may elect to take the exam without additional training. Based on qualifications and experience, restricted Level 2 certificates may be issued to physicians and registered nurses in hospitals and to firefighters in municipal fire departments who have not taken the course. Restricted Occupational First Aid Level 2 certificates issued to physicians and registered nurses in hospitals or to firefighters in municipal fire departments are not transferable outside of a hospital or the municipal fire service industry, respectively.

Level 3 First Aid Certificate
Level 3 certification requires participation in a 70-hour training course and passing an examination acceptable to WorkSafeBC. Renewal is normally accomplished by retaking the 70-hour course, or a 35-hour refresher course, before taking the exam; however, the candidate may elect to take the exam without additional training.

Transportation Endorsement
A Transportation Endorsement for a Level 1 or Level 2 first aid certificate requires the certificate holder to successfully complete a 7-hour Occupational First Aid Transportation Endorsement training course.

Other training courses, providing they meet specific standards set by WorkSafeBC and are approved by WorkSafeBC, may qualify candidates for equivalent Level 1, 2, and 3 certification, or a transportation endorsement. These other courses, however, cannot be titled Occupational First Aid Level 1, Occupational First Aid Level 2, Occupational First Aid Level 3, or an Occupational First Aid Transportation Endorsement.

First Aid Kits: Recommended Minimum Contents

Schedule 3–A Minimum Levels of First Aid: Tables 1–6 in the Regulation, indicate in Column 2 the level of first aid kit required for different workplaces.

Personal first aid kit
These items must be kept clean and dry. A weatherproof container is recommended.

1 pressure dressing
6 sterile adhesive dressings, assorted sizes, individually packaged
1 wallet-sized instruction card advising the worker to report any injury to the employer for entry in the first aid records, and instructions on how the worker is to call for assistance
6 14 cm x 19 cm wound cleansing towelettes, individually packaged

Basic first aid kit
These items must be kept clean and dry and must be ready to take to the scene of an accident. A weatherproof container is recommended.

12 14 cm x 19 cm wound cleansing towelettes, individually packaged
30 hand cleansing towelettes, individually packaged
50 sterile adhesive dressings, assorted sizes, individually packaged
6 10 cm x 10 cm sterile gauze dressings, individually packaged
2 10 cm x 16.5 cm sterile pressure dressings with crepe ties
2 20 cm x 25 cm sterile abdominal dressings, individually packaged
4 cotton triangular bandages, minimum length of base 1.25 m
2 safety pins
1 14 cm stainless steel bandage scissors or universal scissors
1 11.5 cm stainless steel sliver forceps
6 cotton tip applicators
1 2.5 cm x 4.5 m adhesive tape
1 7.5 cm x 4.5 m crepe roller bandage
1 pocket mask with a one-way valve and oxygen inlet
6 pairs of medical gloves (preferably non-latex)
1 instruction card advising workers to report any injury to the employer for entry in the first aid records, and how a worker is to call for assistance

Level 1 first aid kit
These items must be kept clean and dry and must be ready to take to the scene of an accident. A weatherproof container is recommended for all items except the blankets. Blankets should be readily available to the first aid attendant.

3 blankets
24 14 cm x 19 cm wound cleaning towelettes, individually packaged
60 hand cleansing towelettes, individually packaged
100 sterile adhesive dressings, assorted sizes, individually packaged
12 10 cm x 10 cm sterile gauze dressings, individually packaged
4 10 cm x 16.5 cm sterile pressure dressings with crepe ties
2 7.5 cm x 4.5 m crepe roller bandages
1 2.5 cm x 4.5 m adhesive tape
4 20 cm x 25 cm sterile abdominal dressings, individually packaged
6 cotton triangular bandages, minimum length of base 1.25 m
4 safety pins
1 14 cm stainless steel bandage scissors or universal scissors
1 11.5 cm stainless steel sliver forceps
12 cotton tip applicators
1 pocket mask with a one-way valve and oxygen inlet
6 pairs of medical gloves (preferably non-latex)
first aid records and pen

Level 2 first aid kit
These items must be kept clean and dry and must be ready to take to the scene of an accident. A weatherproof container is recommended for all items except the blankets. Blankets should be readily available to the first aid attendant.

3 blankets
24 14 cm x 19 cm wound cleaning towelettes, individually packaged
150 sterile adhesive dressings, assorted sizes, individually packaged
12 10 cm x 10 cm sterile gauze dressings, individually packaged
4 10 cm x 16.5 cm sterile pressure dressings with crepe ties
10 20 cm x 25 cm sterile abdominal dressings, individually packaged
12 cotton triangular bandages, minimum length of base 1.25 m
2 2.5 cm x 4.5 m rolls of adhesive tape
2 5 cm x 4.5 m rolls of adhesive tape
6 7.5 cm x 4.5 m crepe roller bandages
1 500 ml sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution (saline) in unbreakable container
1 60 ml of liquid antibacterial soap in unbreakable container
1 universal scissors
1 11.5 cm stainless steel sliver forceps
1 penlight or flashlight with batteries
1 7.5 cm x 4.5 m esmarch gum rubber bandage
6 pairs of medical gloves (preferably non-latex)
1 portable oxygen therapy unit consisting of a cylinder (or cylinders) containing compressed oxygen, a pressure regulator, a pressure gauge, a flow meter and a non-rebreathing mask (may be kept in a separate container from the other supplies)
1 oropharyngeal airway kit (may accompany the portable oxygen therapy unit)
1 manually operated self-inflating bag-valve mask unit with an oxygen reservoir (may accompany the portable oxygen therapy unit)
6 patient assessment charts
first aid records and pen
1 pocket mask with a one-way valve and oxygen inlet

Level 3 first aid kit
The level 3 first aid kit is the same as the level 2 kit except that, in addition, one portable suction unit is recommended.

First Aid Facilities: Recommended Minimum Criteria

Schedule 3–A Minimum Levels of First Aid in the OHS Regulation ("Regulation"), contains the minimum levels of first aid required for various workplaces. Tables 1-6 indicate in column 2 whether or not a first aid facility is required, and, if a facility is required, what type (dressing station or first aid room). This document gives guidance on how to set up a first aid facility and some specific recommendations for dressing stations and first aid rooms. It also includes recommendations for portable oxygen therapy equipment and oxygen powered resuscitators, which may be part of the necessary equipment in the facility, as well as recommendations for the storage and safe-keeping of drugs and medicines if these are kept in the first aid facility.

Under section 3.16(4) of the Regulation, a first aid facility must be kept clean, dry, ready for use and must be readily accessible at any time a worker works in the workplace.

General recommendations for all first aid facilities

Location and access
A first aid facility should be located as near as practicable to the work area or areas it is to serve. It should be a room within a building or, if this is not practicable, a tent, vehicle, or other suitable structure.

The first aid facility should be designed and located for easy entrance to and exit from the facility for a worker requiring stretcher transport. A stretcher should not have to be tipped or turned to enter or exit the first aid facility.

In remote areas, building a first aid facility may not be practicable. However, the facility should be at least of the same design and construction as workers' lodgings. If trailers are provided for workers' lodgings, a trailer should be provided for the first aid facility.

When a tent is used, it should

  • Be of the same size and have the same equipment as a first aid room or dressing station, as appropriate
  • Be fitted with a non-porous floor that can be cleaned with soap and water
  • Have a source of heat that will provide sufficient warmth for good patient care (maintaining body temperature)

A first aid facility may be locked to prevent theft and vandalism or for other appropriate reasons. If so, there must be effective means of immediate access during all working hours.

Utilities
The facility should be adequately illuminated, heated, and ventilated. It should have a sink plumbed with hot and cold running water or, if this is not practicable, an alternative system for supplying fresh, potable water. If showering may be a required treatment for chemical exposure, the facility should have a shower or have a shower facility as near as practicable.

It may be impracticable to plumb a first aid facility in certain situations, such as where the facility is a trailer on a construction site or the work is at a remote location. In these cases, one of the following alternative sources of water, with means to heat it, may be considered until a permanent source of water can be connected:

  • The facility has an internal tank able to hold a minimum of 45 litres (10 gallons) of fresh potable water which can be pumped into the facility's sink. The water in this tank must be changed daily, or changed weekly if treated for the prevention of contamination.
  • The facility is connected to a hose or water line from a fresh potable water outlet that can be pumped into the facility's sink.
  • The facility has an insulated container able to hold about 20 litres (5 gallons) of fresh potable water changed daily to prevent contamination.
  • A fresh water supply company provides fresh water in a bottle or jug attached to a hot/cold dispenser.

Other recommendations
Since the facility must be kept clean and sanitary, a non-porous floor covering is recommended.

The facility should have a notice conspicuously displayed outside the door or in the area, indicating how to call and where to find the attendant.

The first aid facility is also subject to the general requirements relating to workplace premises in the Regulation, for example, sections 6.33 to 6.41 (biological agents) and sections 4.81 to 4.83 (environmental tobacco smoke).

Smoking is not permitted in a first aid facility, and "No Smoking" signs should be conspicuously posted.

Using a first aid facility for purposes other than first aid
A first aid facility may be used for purposes other than first aid if

  • It is immediately available for first aid treatment
  • The facility is not at a remote workplace (more than two hours' surface travel from a hospital)
  • The minimum floor area needed for first aid is maintained
  • Such use will neither impede the treatment of an injured worker nor pose a hazard to workers

Additional recommendations for dressing stations
In addition to the previous recommendations for a facility, a dressing station should be at least 4.3 square metres (48 sq ft). It should have the following dressing station equipment:

 

3 blankets
6 metal splints, minimum length 60 cm
1 refuse pail with lid
1 package of paper towels
1 bifocal magnifier with head strap, 12.5 cm focus
1 eye cup
6 safety pins
1 11.5 cm stainless steel sliver forceps
1 14 cm stainless steel bandage scissors
1 oral thermometer
1 nail brush
1 penlight or flashlight with batteries
50 patient assessment charts
1 first aid record book, and pencil or pen
1 150 ml liquid antibacterial soap
4 cold packs
20 tongue depressors
50 cotton tip applicators
2 30 gram tubes water soluble burn treatment
1 100 ml liquid adhesive tape remover
100 sterile adhesive dressings, assorted sizes, individually packaged
24 sterile skin closures, individually packaged
6 20 cm x 25 cm sterile abdominal dressings, individually packaged
3 30 cm x 40 cm sterile abdominal dressings, individually packaged
4 sterile eye pads, individually packaged
100 7.5 cm x 7.5 cm gauze sponges
24 7.5 cm x 7.5 cm sterile gauze dressings, individually packaged
24 10 cm x 10 cm sterile gauze dressings, individually packaged
4 7.5 cm x 4.5 m crepe roller bandages
2 10 cm x 16.5 cm sterile pressure dressings, with crepe ties
1 7.5 cm x 4.5 m adhesive crepe bandage
2 2.5 cm x 4.5 m rolls of adhesive tape
2 5 cm x 4.5 m rolls of adhesive tape
1 7.5 cm x 4.5 m esmarch gum rubber bandage
2 5 cm x 1.8 m conforming gauze roller bandages
2 7.5 cm x 1.8 m conforming gauze roller bandages
12 cotton triangular bandages, minimum length of base 1.25 m
1 #01 - 4.5 m tubular finger bandage with applicator
1 500 ml sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution (saline)
1 kidney basin
1 wash basin
1 cold instrument sterilizer
1 4.5 litre non-rusting germicidal solution for instrument tray
1 chair suitable for treating injured worker with non-porous surface or covered with non-porous material

Additional recommendations for first aid rooms
In addition to the previous recommendations, a first aid room should be at least 9.3 square metres (100 sq ft). It should have:

Storage cupboards
A counter
A toilet, or have a toilet facility as near as practicable

At a remote workplace (more than 2 hours' surface travel time to a hospital), a first aid room should be equipped to provide reasonable overnight care for two injured workers and be used exclusively for first aid purposes.

A first aid room should have the following equipment:

3 blankets
1 bed approximately 2 m long x 75 cm wide and 75 cm high, with a mattress having a non- porous surface or covered with non-porous material
2 pillows with non-porous surface or covered with non-porous material
4 sheets
1 refuse pail with lid
1 package of paper towels
1 eye cup
18 safety pins
2 4.5 kg sand bags
1 11.5 cm stainless steel sliver forceps
1 15 cm stainless steel thin nosed plier-type forceps
1 14 cm stainless steel bandage scissors
1 universal scissors
1 oral thermometer
1 nail brush
1 penlight or flashlight with batteries
50 patient assessment charts
1 first aid record book, and pencil or pen
36 14 cm x 19 cm antiseptic towelettes, individually packaged
1 150 ml liquid antibacterial soap
1 eye lamp, self illuminating, magnifying
6 cold packs
12 expanded metal splints, minimum length 60 cm
50 tongue depressors
100 cotton tip applicators
2 30 g tubes water soluble burn treatment
1 100 ml liquid adhesive tape remover
150 sterile adhesive dressings
48 sterile skin closures
6 20 cm x 25 cm sterile abdominal dressings, individually packaged
6 sterile eye pads, individually packaged
6 30 cm x 40 cm sterile abdominal dressings, individually packaged
200 7.5 cm x 7.5 cm gauze sponges
72 7.5 cm x 7.5 cm sterile gauze dressings, individually packaged
72 10 cm x 10 cm sterile gauze dressings, individually packaged
6 10 cm x 16.5 cm sterile pressure dressings with crepe ties
2 2.5 cm x 4.5 m adhesive crepe bandages
4 2.5 cm x 4.5 m rolls of adhesive tape
3 5 cm x 4.5 m rolls of adhesive tape
6 7.5 cm x 4.5 m crepe roller bandages
1 7.5 cm x 4.5 m esmarch gum rubber bandage
4 5 cm x 1.8 m conforming gauze roller bandages
4 7.5 cm x 1.8 m conforming gauze roller bandages
24 cotton triangular bandages, minimum length of base 1.25 m
2 #0l - 4.5 m tubular finger bandage with applicator
2 500 ml sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution (saline)
1 kidney basin
1 wash basin
1 cold instrument sterilizer
1 4.5 litre non-rusting germicidal solution for instrument tray
1 chair suitable for treating injured worker with non-porous surface or covered with non-porous material
1 portable urinal, if overnight care may be required
1 bedpan, if overnight care may be required

Portable oxygen therapy equipment
When a Level 2 or 3 attendant is necessary at the workplace, portable oxygen therapy equipment should be available. The equipment should

  • Be capable of supplying 15 litres per minute of oxygen
  • Contain enough oxygen to supply this rate from the time of initial application to the arrival at medical treatment, plus 15 minutes

Oxygen therapy equipment should comply with CSA Standard CAN/CSA Z305.3.M87, Pressure Regulators, Gauges, and Flow Metering Devices for Medical Gases, or a similar acceptable standard.

"No Smoking" signs or markings should be plainly visible on oxygen therapy equipment.

An oxygen cylinder should be hydrostatically tested on refilling if five years have elapsed since the previous test or, if there has been no previous test, since the date of manufacture. The test date should be marked on the cylinder.

Oxygen powered resuscitators
An oxygen powered resuscitator may be used where a worker is injured and entrapped in a toxic atmosphere. An oxygen powered resuscitator should be maintained and operated in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications.

Only a person trained in the use of the specific equipment should operate it. This training should include a minimum of 4 hours' training in the safe operation of the equipment from the supplier or other qualified person. The training must include all facets of the equipment's operation, handling, and storage. Refresher training or practice should take place every six months, and a training record of the initial, and subsequent, training should be maintained by the employer.

Drugs and medicine
Each drug use should be recorded in the first aid record unless the administration of a drug or medication to a worker is required for a condition that is not work-related. A worker may request an entry be made even if the purpose for taking the drug was not work-related.

Non-prescription drugs
Non-prescription drugs supplied by the employer should be under the control of the attendant or other authorized representative of the employer.

Non-prescription drugs must be used in accordance with the drug manufacturer's recommendations or specific instructions from a physician or qualified practitioner.

Before supplying non-prescription drugs or medications to a worker where there are no specific instructions from a physician or qualified practitioner, the first aid attendant should

  • Be familiar with the side effects, contra-indications, and indications for use listed by the manufacturer (of particular concern are drugs or medications that cause drowsiness or interfere with alertness and manual dexterity required by workers to perform their duties)
  • Inform the worker of any side effects or contra-indications
  • Not supply drugs or medication past the expiry date
  • Obtain a history of events leading up to the worker asking for relief
  • Determine if the worker is currently taking any medication and, if so, the appropriateness of taking additional medication
  • Where required, make an entry in the first aid records

Prescription drugs
A first aid treatment area or kit should not contain prescription drugs and medications unless approved in writing by a physician or qualified practitioner. This includes both prescription drugs for a poison unique to a workplace, such as cyanide or hydrofluoric acid, and prescription drugs for the treatment of a specific worker's condition, such as angina or diabetes. The Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties should be referenced to determine what constitutes a "prescription" drug.

The storage, safe keeping, and use of prescription drugs and medications must be in accordance with the written instructions given by the prescribing physician or qualified practitioner. Where required, make an entry in the first aid records

Any letter from a physician or qualified practitioner regarding prescription drugs should identify

  • The specific workplace or worker for which the prescribed drug or medication is required
  • The specific reasons for use
  • The method of application
  • The expiry date of authorization
Emergency Vehicles and Equipment

Schedule 3–A Minimum Levels of First Aid in the Regulation, contains the minimum levels of first aid required for various workplaces. Tables 1-6 indicate in column 4 whether or not an emergency vehicle is required, and, if an emergency vehicle is required, what type (emergency transportation vehicle or industrial ambulance) is necessary or mandatory or is to be available at the workplace. This document gives guidance on the use of emergency vehicles and the equipment needed and suggests when a mobile treatment centre might be used in place of a first aid facility and emergency vehicle. It also provides recommendations for air transport when that is the primary means to getting an injured worker to medical treatment.

Note that WorkSafeBC does not approve of any particular makes or models of emergency vehicles and does not register vehicles.

General guidelines for emergency vehicles
Emergency vehicles must be maintained and operated in accordance with the general requirements relating to vehicles in the Regulation and with any other applicable statutes and regulations.

Smoking is not permitted in a vehicle when it is used for transporting an injured worker, and a plainly visible "no smoking" sign should be posted in the vehicle.

Location and access
Where a vehicle is needed to transport an injured worker, the vehicle should be immediately available for use and capable of being dispatched to the accident scene within 3 to 5 minutes of being required. It should be located where it will best serve the workers who are most likely to need an emergency vehicle.

The attendant should not operate the vehicle when this may interfere with the required first aid treatment.

Vehicle requirements
Sometimes an employer may have different vehicles used for different parts of the journey to treatment. The following are recommended for each vehicle:

  • The vehicle should be capable of traversing the area it is intended to serve.
  • It should have a minimum headroom of 1 metre (3.3 feet).
  • It should provide protection from the natural elements and dust.
  • It should provide warmth sufficient for good care for the injured worker, with the patient compartment heated enough to maintain normal body temperature when the injured worker is covered with three blankets.
  • The source of heat must not be a hazard to the occupants of the vehicle when oxygen is in use.
  • It should have effective voice communication between the operator and the attendant in the treatment area of the vehicle.
  • It should have a means of effective communication with the scene of an accident. For example:
    • The driver has a two-way radio that has a direct link with another two-way radio at the scene of the injured or ill worker.
    • The driver has a two-way radio that has a link with the employer's central dispatch centre, which has voice communication via a radio or radiotelephone with workers at the scene.
  • It should have effective communication with the hospital. For example:
    • The driver has a two-way radio that has a direct link with the hospital.
    • A radiotelephone in the vehicle can contact the hospital directly.
    • A two-way radio or radiotelephone in the vehicle has a link with the employer's central dispatch centre, which has voice communication via a telephone or radiotelephone with the hospital.
    • The emergency vehicle is accompanied to the hospital by another vehicle that is equipped with a radiotelephone or two-way radio that can contact the hospital directly and its driver can communicate with the emergency vehicle.
  • Vehicles that transport injured or ill workers do not need to have mounted emergency lights or an audible signal (such as sirens). Before obtaining this type of equipment, the employer or the company supplying the vehicle should consult with the Department of Licensing and Compliance at the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC).

Additional recommendations for an emergency transport vehicle (ETV)
In addition to the general recommendations for emergency vehicles, an ETV should be capable of transporting at least one worker on a stretcher. It should have a means of restraining a stretcher and have enough padding to prevent excessive jarring of the injured worker.

An ETV should contain the following equipment:

1 set of hard cervical collars covering all adult sizes (or 2 adjustable hard cervical collars)
1 spine board with handholds, no less than 44 cm x 1.8 m x 2 cm, acceptable to WorkSafeBC, and seven 1.8 m x 5 cm heavy velcro straps or equivalent to secure an injured worker
1 stretcher (Whenever an injured worker may require transport over rough terrain a basket stretcher or other carrying device acceptable to WorkSafeBC must be used. The basket stretcher must have a spine board with handholds and retainer straps and a suitable mattress or padding)
6 blankets (Three of these blankets may be the blankets needed with the Level 1, 2, or 3 kit at the workplace unless weather conditions at the workplace require more for the safe treatment or transport of injured workers, in which case suitable weather-resistant protection may also be needed)
2 4.5 kg sand bags
2 vomitus bags

When a Level 3 first aid attendant is necessary, the following should be added:

1 set of splints, to include - 2 splints (1 cm x 10 cm x 1 m notched with 2.5 cm padding)
- 1 splint (1 cm x 10 cm x 1.5 m notched with 2.5 cm padding)

Additional recommendations for an industrial ambulance
In addition to the general recommendations for emergency vehicles, an industrial ambulance should

  • Be used only for first aid treatment and transportation of injured workers, under the direction of the first aid attendant
  • Be capable of accommodating at least two workers on stretchers
  • Have adequate lighting in the patient compartment, allowing the attendant to see and assess the injured or ill worker and complete documentation, without the use of a flashlight
  • Contain a roll cot or basket stretcher properly secured and cushioned against excessive jarring

An industrial ambulance should contain the same equipment as an ETV plus a set of lower limb splints.

Mobile treatment centre (MTC)
An MTC is an industrial ambulance that also has

  • A sink with running water or, if this is not practicable, an alternative system for supplying fresh, potable water
  • Minimum headroom of 1.8 metres (6 feet) in the treatment area, sufficient for the attendant to treat the injured worker
  • Dressing station equipment

An MTC may be used in place of a first aid facility and emergency vehicle (ETV or industrial ambulance). This is recommended only when all the following circumstances apply:

  • The workplace does not provide overnight accommodation for workers.
  • Where the workplace is more than 2 hours' surface travel time from a hospital, another vehicle suitable for transporting an injured worker is also provided.
  • When used in place of a first aid room, the MTC contains the necessary first aid room equipment.

Air transport
If air transport is the primary or only means of transporting an injured worker to medical treatment, the following arrangements and equipment are recommended:

  • Make arrangements with an air service, before the start of work, to ensure that an appropriate aircraft will be reasonably available during operations.
  • The aircraft should be capable of transporting a stretcher patient and a first aid attendant, allowing the attendant sufficient room to provide emergency treatment en route, if required.
  • A list of radio frequencies to be used between the air carrier and the workplace should be included in the written procedures required by section 3.17(1) of the Regulation. The coordinates of the workplace should be included in the written procedures.
  • First aid equipment should be suitable for the aircraft to be used, including a stretcher or spine board that will fit in the aircraft and that does not allow movement or excessive jarring of the injured or ill worker during air transport. Employers are responsible for ensuring that attendants are properly trained in the use of the equipment.
  • If weather or other factors could unreasonably delay the use of aircraft, alternative transportation options should be provided, where practicable.

The attendant has training to decide whether air or surface transportation is most appropriate for the injured or ill worker.

Guidelines Part 3 - Young and new workers

G3.23 Young or new worker orientation and training

Issued July 26, 2007; Revised July 9, 2009; Editorial Revision consequential to August 4, 2015 Regulatory Amendment

Regulatory excerpt
Section 3.23 (Young or new worker orientation and training) of the OHS Regulation ("Regulation") states:

3.23 Young or new worker orientation and training

(1) An employer must ensure that before a young or new worker begins work in a workplace, the young or new worker is given health and safety orientation and training specific to that young or new worker's workplace.

(2) The following topics must be included in the young or new worker's orientation and training:

(a) the name and contact information for the young or new worker's supervisor;

(b) the employer's and young or new worker's rights and responsibilities under the Workers Compensation Act and this Regulation including the reporting of unsafe conditions and the right to refuse to perform unsafe work;

(c) workplace health and safety rules;

(d) hazards to which the young or new worker may be exposed, including risks from robbery, assault or confrontation;

(e) working alone or in isolation;

(f) violence in the workplace;

(g) personal protective equipment;

(h) location of first aid facilities and means of summoning first aid and reporting illnesses and injuries;

(i) emergency procedures;

(j) instruction and demonstration of the young or new worker's work task or work process;

(k) the employer's health and safety program, if required under section 3.1 of this Regulation;

(l) WHMIS information requirements set out in Part 5, as applicable to the young or new worker's workplace;

(m) contact information for the occupational health and safetycommittee or the worker health and safety representative, as applicable to the workplace.

Purpose of guideline
This guideline is to assist employers and workers in implementing the requirements of section 3.23. It provides information on

  • The objectives of the orientation and training requirements listed in section 3.23
  • Possible means of delivery of these requirements
  • Where to get further information to assist with the orientation

The guideline also provides an overview of age-related requirements regarding children in the workplace under the BC Employment Standards Act, for information only, should this issue arise at a workplace.

Objectives of the orientation topics
Under section 3.23 employers will be required to provide young and new workers with orientation and training about safe work procedures and how to recognize hazards on the job. It lists a number of topics that must be addressed.

In many workplaces some of the requirements in section 3.23 will already be in place as part of the general safety measures in the workplace. To conduct proper orientation, the topics must be provided to young and new workers.

There may be topics beyond those listed in section 3.23 that an employer would wish to include in the orientation. The Regulation sets a minimum standard, which employers may exceed. In some cases, one or more of the topics may not be applicable in a given workplace and would not need to be included.

In the discussion below any reference to "worker" means "young or new worker."

(a) Name and contact information for the worker's supervisor
The worker must know the identity of the individual(s) responsible for providing work direction to him/her, and how to contact him/her if they are not immediately available. This can be particularly helpful to ensure any ongoing questions in the early period of time on the job are addressed.

(b) The employer's and worker's rights and responsibilities
The worker must be informed about his/her rights and responsibilities and those of the employer under the Workers Compensation Act ("Act") and the Regulation. For example, the worker has the right to be informed about workplace hazards (including WHMIS), the duty to report hazards, the duty to refuse unsafe work, and the right to participate in workplace health and safety activities. The worker should also be advised of the protection from discrimination provisions in the Act, and provisions related to first aid and reporting any injuries and diseases.

(c) Workplace health and safety rules
The worker must be trained in the workplace health and safety rules applicable to the workplace and the tasks the worker will perform. The rules are expected to address any hazards that the worker may encounter, including various types of controls, such as work procedures, use of personal protective equipment, and the safe means of operating equipment.

(d) Hazards to which the worker may be exposed
The worker must be informed about the hazards he/she could encounter while performing assigned work tasks. Depending on the work setting, these hazards may be physical in nature and involve a risk of injury, or may pose a risk of disease (e.g., when handling a hazardous substance). If a worker is in a location that involves contact with the public, the employer must advise of any risks that may arise, including, as applicable, abusive behaviour, robbery, assault, or other possible confrontation.

(e) Working alone or in isolation
If the worker is assigned to work alone or in isolation, the worker must be trained in the policies and procedures to be followed. Under the requirements of the Regulation the employer must set up a system for checking on the well being of the worker. When establishing the system, the employer must consult with the worker on the time intervals to be used. In some cases working alone is linked to a potential for violence in the workplace.

(f) Violence in the workplace
The worker must be provided with orientation and training on the policies and procedures to be followed in the event of violence in the workplace. The worker should be advised of the meaning of the term "violence," which includes any threatening statement or behaviour, and the circumstances in the workplace where a risk of violence may be present. The worker should be trained in the procedures to follow to eliminate or minimize any risk in such situations, for example, when handling money, and opening or closing the business. He/she should also be trained in the steps to take to eliminate or minimize the risk of injury to the worker in the event of an incident.

In part, this topic is already covered under topics (c), (d), and (e). However, instruction in this topic will ensure that the worker is given an understanding of the overall measures in the workplace for protection from violence.

(g) Personal protective equipment (PPE)
The worker must be provided with appropriate orientation and training in the use and care of any personal protective equipment or clothing that the worker is required to use to safely perform his/her work. This is also a requirement under Part 8 of the Regulation, and will help the worker meet his or her obligations to use PPE properly.

(h) Location of first aid facilities, the means of summoning first aid, and reporting illnesses and injuries
The worker must be advised of the location of first aid facilities, the identity of the first aid attendant(s), and how to summon an attendant. This topic also covers the employer's obligation to inform the worker of the procedures to follow to report an illness or injury to WorkSafeBC.

(i) Emergency procedures
The worker must be advised of potential emergency situations that could occur in his/her work location, and trained in the procedures to follow. This topic is a companion to topic (h) on first aid, and addresses other aspects of emergency response, such as evacuation in the event of fire, or if hazardous substances are handled, how to contain a spill of the substance.

(j) Instruction and demonstration of the worker's work task or work process
The worker must be provided with both instruction and demonstration - not simply a verbal description - of work tasks that the worker will be required to perform when he/she begins work. Further training may be required as new tasks are assigned.

The demonstration should address the aspects of the work that will involve safety risks if not performed correctly. For example, if the worker will be operating a piece of mechanical equipment, the employer will need to ensure that all safety points are demonstrated, including the use of guarding and other safety devices, means of equipment startup, and how to follow safe operating procedures.

(k) The employer's occupational health and safety (OHS) program
Under this topic the employer is expected to provide an orientation to the OHS program in the workplace. If a program is required under section 3.1 of the Regulation the orientation would describe the program elements, which are outlined in section 3.3 of the Regulation, and how they are implemented. If, for a small workplace, the program is less formal, then the orientation would be on the elements of the program outlined in section 3.2.

(l) WHMIS information requirements, as applicable to the worker's workplace
This topic is intended to ensure the worker is provided with an orientation on the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS), and its application to hazardous products in the workplace. The orientation should explain the WHMIS hazard classes, and the use of WHMIS labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDS). In addition, there are four WHMIS objectives for training a worker in how to work safely with hazardous products. Workers need to know the hazards of the products, how they can protect themselves, what to do in case of an emergency or spill, and where to get more information on the products. The first three of these will already be addressed under other topics such as (c), (d), (h), and (i). To address the fourth, typically workers will need to be informed of where SDSs are located or how they can be accessed if available electronically.

If there are hazardous products in the workplace not covered by WHMIS, the orientation under topics such as (c), (d), (h), and (i) should be given to address safety with those products.

(m) Contact information for the joint occupational health and safety (OHS) committee, or worker health and safety representative
If applicable, the employer must inform the worker on how to contact the joint OHS committee, or the worker health and safety representative.

Delivering the orientation
The employer must determine how to deliver the orientation and training to the worker. However, there are a number of options to consider.

  • Address topics according to applicability: As previously noted, some topics listed in section 3.23 may not be applicable in a given workplace. The employer can adjust the orientation accordingly.
  • Organize topics into groups: Section 3.23 requires that applicable topics be covered in the orientation or training, but not necessarily as separate items. The employer can organize the orientation or training in any manner, as long as the content intended by the topics is addressed. For example, three of the topics involve contact information, and could be presented as a unit. Two of the topics (first aid and emergency procedures) involve a common theme of emergency response. The topics on working alone and violence often cover aspects of the same issue, and could be presented together. Other combinations are also possible.
  • Use generic instruction and orientation coupled with site-specific information: Information on some of the topics listed in section 3.23 may be applicable from one workplace to another while site-specific instructions will only apply at the worksite in question. Generic instruction and orientations can serve as a good basis on which an employer can add employer or site-specific information. Generic instruction and orientation, coupled with site-specific information can be particularly useful where a worker is performing the same work under different circumstances. Examples include circumstances where
    • Employers have a number of workplaces
    • The industry has highly mobile workers, such as in construction
    • Workers are performing casual or temporary work, such as substitute teachers

In determining the right combination of generic and site-specific topics that will meet the requirements of section 3.23, the circumstances of each scenario need to be considered. By way of example, generic topics for workers under the above noted circumstances could include

  • Employer and worker rights and responsibilities
  • Employer's occupational health and safety program
  • Generic aspects of WHMIS
  • Personal protection equipment

Topics that will be specific to a site include

  • Workplace health and safety rules
  • Name and contact of supervisor
  • Location of first aid facilities
  • Emergency procedures

Generic instruction and orientation could be provided at a corporate or district level. In some cases workers could carry documentation as proof that they have received generic orientation for their respective occupation or trade. Generic orientation and training that includes an expiry date will help ensure that workers receive up-to-date information.

Where to get further information
Some examples of the various sources of information on orientation and training are

  • The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) maintains a web site on which they provide information on various topics, including a number of those listed in section 3.23. Examples include: rights and responsibilities, working alone, WHMIS, and violence in the workplace. CCOHS also maintains a Youth portal on the site, with topics specific to young workers. The home page for CCOHS is found at http://www.ccohs.ca/.
  • WorkSafeBC maintains a Young Worker portal on its web site. The portal provides a range of materials and helpful links, including a checklist for training and orientation, a program on rights and responsibilities, and information on typical accidents young workers have experienced.
  • Any health and safety association in an industry may also have information available.

Children in the workplace
In British Columbia, the Employment Standards Act ("ESA") sets out age requirements for the employment of children. Specifically, the ESA requires that an employer may not hire a child under the age of 15 without the written consent of the child's parent or legal guardian. An employer may not employ a child under the age of 12 without the permission of the Director of Employment Standards, which is granted through a permit. The Employment Standards Regulation further sets out working conditions for children, including the requirement that a child may only work under the direct supervision of a person who is 19 years of age or older. The Employment Standards Regulation sets out separate conditions for children working in the entertainment industry, and excludes certain types of work, such as babysitting, from the above requirements.

A WorkSafeBC prevention officer, or any other person, who encounters a potential violation of the ESA or the Employment Standards Regulation should refer the matter to the Employment Standards Branch. Contact information for the regional Branch locations can be found at: http://www.labour.gov.bc.ca/esb/contact/welcome.htm

Individuals seeking additional information may want to view the following fact sheets. These fact sheets have been developed by the Employment Standards Branch to outline conditions for the employment of children, the first aimed at parents and the second aimed at employers and the general public.
http://www.labour.gov.bc.ca/esb/young/guide.pdf
http://www.labour.gov.bc.ca/esb/facshts/pdfs/youth_general.pdf

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Disclaimer: The Workers' Compensation Board of B.C. ("WorkSafeBC") publishes the online version Occupational Health and Safety Regulation ("OHS Regulation") in accordance with its mandate under the Workers Compensation Act to provide information and promote public awareness of occupational health and safety matters. The online OHS Regulation is not the official version of the OHS Regulation, which may be purchased from Crown Publications. WorkSafeBC endeavours to update the online OHS Regulation as soon as possible following any legislative amendments. However, WorkSafeBC does not warrant the accuracy or the completeness of the online OHS Regulation, and neither WorkSafeBC nor its board of directors, employees or agents shall be liable to any person for any loss or damage of any nature, whether arising out of negligence or otherwise, arising from the use of the online OHS Regulation. Employers are legally obligated to make a copy of the Workers Compensation Act and the OHS Regulation readily available for review by workers. The circumstances under which WorkSafeBC may consider an employer's providing access to electronic versions of the Act and OHS Regulation to have satisfied this obligation are described in Guideline G-D3-115(2)(f).