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Part 27 Contents

27.1 Application

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

27.2 Protection from flying debris
27.3 Kickback and kickout protection
27.4 Pressure rolls
27.5 Crossing green chains and decks
27.6 Lumber package rollcase access
27.7 Mechanical handlers
27.8 Veneer clippers
27.9 Kilns
27.10 Personnel hoists
27.11 Hidden hazards
27.12 Communication
27.13 Water operations

SAWS AND KNIVES

27.14 Unattended machinery
27.15 Sharpening saws and knives
27.16 Babbitt melting
27.17 Sharp-edged tools
27.18 Circular saw guarding
27.19 Band saw guarding
27.20 Slasher and trim saws
27.21 Circular cutoff saws
27.22 Splitters
27.23 Chop, trim and swing cutoff saws
27.24 Circular saw guides
27.25 Cutoff saw interlocks
27.26 Saw operator location
27.27 Saw speeds [Repealed]
27.28 Saw maintenance
27.29 Cracks in circular saws
Table 27-1: Circular saw crack limits
27.30 Cracks in band saws
Table 27-2: Band saw crack limits
27.31 Band saw wheel wear limits

LOG HANDLING

27.32 Log-haul walkways
27.33 Log hauling equipment
27.34 Rolling logs
27.35 Barker feed restraints
27.36 Bundle breaking

HEADRIGS

27.37 Buffer stops
27.38 Locking control levers
27.39 Carriage track barriers
27.40 Preventing contact

CHIPPERS, HOGS AND PLANERS

27.41 Hog and chipper chutes
27.42 Hogs, chippers and cutting heads

MATERIALS HANDLING

27.43 Height of chip and sawdust piles
27.44 Wood products storage

SHAKE AND SHINGLE MILLS

27.45 Shake splitters and cubers
27.46 Block size and pile height
27.47 Shingle saws
27.48 Shake resaw arm guards
27.49 Clipper saw guards
27.50 Clipper saw brakes
27.51 Treadle controls
27.52 Set works and reciprocating parts
27.53 Carriage speed
27.54 Saw diameter
27.55 Unattended machines

Wood Products Manufacturing Application

27.1 Application

This Part applies to workplaces that process logs or other wood into lumber, shakes, shingles, chips, plywood, particleboard or other wood products.

Note: See Part 12 (Tools, Machinery and Equipment) for requirements for woodworking equipment.

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General Requirements

27.2 Protection from flying debris

Equipment used to manufacture wood products must be designed or fitted with effective guarding or screening to protect workers from flying chips, debris, or hazards in the event of the failure of equipment components.

27.3 Kickback and kickout protection

(1) Edgers and other wood processing equipment which expose workers to the danger of material being thrown back by the saws must be fitted with effective kickback fingers, and if the danger remains when the kickback fingers are raised, a substantial barrier must be provided to protect workers.

(2) A worker must not be in front of raised kickback fingers while the saw is in motion.

(3) A worker must not be allowed at the outfeed end of an edger or other similar wood processing equipment where a kickout hazard exists, and inadvertent entry into such a danger area must be prevented.

(4) Edgers equipped with automatically activated kickback fingers must have interlocks to prevent forward motion of the feed rolls while the kickback fingers are in a raised position.

(5) Workers must be protected from the kickback or kickout dangers of plywood sanders.

27.4 Pressure rolls

(1) Edger pressure rolls must

(a) have a solid continuous rim surface, and

(b) be kept in contact with the material being cut.

(2) Only one piece of material at a time may be fed into any single set of pressure rolls for an edger, surfacer, or planer.

(3) A multiple feed edger must have separate pressure rolls for each feed.

27.5 Crossing green chains and decks

(1) A worker who is required to cross a green chain or transfer deck must

(a) be instructed in the hazards and proper procedures to follow,

(b) ensure the transfer deck is stopped before crossing, and is restarted only after the crossing is completed,

(c) cross only on fully decked locations where no hazard of falling exists and where safe means of access and egress have been provided, and

(d) cross only in a space clear of material.

(2) If a worker is required to access a transfer deck in order to control the flow of material as part of normal production work, the employer must ensure that

(a) safe work procedures are established and, where practicable, posted adjacent to the machinery,

(b) the worker is instructed in and follows the safe work procedures,

(c) the transfer deck is stopped before access,

(d) the worker accesses only fully decked areas, where there is no hazard of falling and where safe access and egress has been provided, and

(e) the stop control devices cannot be overridden by another control device, or by another worker.

27.6 Lumber package rollcase access

If a worker must access a lumber package rollcase for normal production work,

(a) the rollcase must be stopped, and

(b) the equipment and machinery must have effective safeguards to prevent injury to workers due to movement of material.

Note: Safeguards include interlock barrier guards, pressure sensing mats, jog controls, mechanical stops or other similar devices under the exclusive and immediate control of the worker.

27.7 Mechanical handlers

A mechanical handler must be effectively safeguarded to prevent contact by workers.

27.8 Veneer clippers

A veneer clipper must be guarded to prevent a worker's hands or fingers being placed under the knife.

27.9 Kilns

(1) A dry kiln must have effective safety devices to prevent a door or carrier from falling.

(2) If a worker may be entrapped in a dry kiln, there must be an effective means of emergency escape, clearly identifiable by anyone inside the kiln.

27.10 Personnel hoists

A personnel hoist for a hot press, a pulp and paper dryer or a similar machine must

(a) have effective means to prevent the platform from falling if the power or equipment fails,

(b) Repealed. [B.C. Reg. 312/2003, effective October 29, 2003.]

(c) have critical components regularly inspected by a qualified person,

(d) have the rated load clearly marked on the hoist platform,

(e) have a log of inspections, maintenance and repairs meeting the requirements of Part 4 (General Conditions), and

(f) be fitted with guardrails and toeboards meeting the requirements of Part 4.

[Amended by B.C. Reg. 312/2003, effective October 29, 2003.]

* See also section 4.3 of the OHS Regulation.

27.11 Hidden hazards

Where dangers, and dangerous equipment such as a jump saw, or automated equipment operated by photocells or proximity switches, are not readily visible to workers, the dangers must be made conspicuous by signs, placards or other effective means.

27.12 Communication

An effective means of communication must be provided and safe work procedures must be established to ensure the safety of workers when 2 or more workers are required to work as a team.

27.13 Water operations

Water operations must meet the requirements for such operations in Part 26 (Forestry Operations and Similar Activities.

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Saws and Knives

27.14 Unattended machinery

An unattended saw and other woodworking machinery must not be left running if a worker could be endangered.

27.15 Sharpening saws and knives

Equipment used for grinding saws and knives must have an effective local exhaust ventilation system or other effective means of dust and mist control.

27.16 Babbitt melting

(1) Babbitt melting must be done at a controlled temperature.

(2) Exhaust hoods must be provided for melting and pouring operations or an equally effective air contaminant control method must be used.

(3) A babbitt pot must be covered.

(4) If practicable, a lead-free babbitt must be used.

27.17 Sharp-edged tools

The cutting edges of saws, knives, cutting heads, and other sharp-edged devices, must be

(a) guarded to prevent worker contact, when stored in operating areas, and

(b) handled and transported in a manner which will not endanger workers.

27.18 Circular saw guarding

(1) If there is a risk of injury to a worker from the blade of a circular saw, or flying debris from the saw blade, the portions of the blade outside the cutting area must be fully guarded.

(2) Guards must be arranged to allow cutting with a minimum amount of exposed blade.

27.19 Band saw guarding

(1) A band saw and its band wheels must be enclosed or otherwise effectively guarded except in the cutting area to prevent worker contact and to restrain the saw blade in the event of blade failure.

(2) If metal enclosures are used with shake band saw wheels, the top door panel must be fitted with an inside wooden liner.

(3) For a hand-fed shake band saw, the distance between the top of the table rollers and the top guide must not exceed 36 cm (14 in).

27.20 Slasher and trim saws

(1) Barriers to protect workers from ejected material must be installed in front of and behind all multiple slashers and multiple trim saws.

(2) If a worker may be caught or pulled into a saw or other danger area by a lug chain or similar transfer system, an emergency stopping device must be fitted on the conveyance to automatically stop the transfer system before the worker is pulled into the danger area.

27.21 Circular cutoff saws

A circular cutoff saw must be fully enclosed, guarded, or located to prevent inadvertent contact with the running saw when it is in the retracted position.

27.22 Splitters

(1) If a worker may be exposed to kickback from a circular saw with rip-type teeth, the saw must be fitted with an effective splitter.

(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to an edger or circular resaw which is equipped with anti-kickback fingers.

27.23 Chop, trim and swing cutoff saws

(1) Each swing cutoff saw must have

(a) a device to automatically return the saw to the back of the table,

(b) a limit chain, or similar device to prevent the saw from swinging beyond the front of the table and past a position where the gullets of the lowest teeth rise above the top of the table, and

(c) a latch or similar device to prevent saw rebound.

(2) A swing cutoff saw operator must be positioned so that no part of the operator's body is in line with the saw.

(3) Each chop, trim and swing cutoff saw must

(a) be effectively guarded,

(b) be guarded by location, or

(c) have other effective means that prevent the operator's hands being placed in the cutting area when the saw is activated.

27.24 Circular saw guides

(1) Circular head saws and scragg saws must be equipped with safety guides.

(2) If a top saw is only used occasionally, such as to cut flares off oversized logs, the requirements of subsection (1) do not apply.

(3) Guides that must be adjusted while the saw is in motion must have the adjustment controls located away from the danger area.

27.25 Cutoff saw interlocks

If a powered conveyor feeds material at right angles to the blade of a circular cutoff saw, the system must have interlock control devices to prevent side loading of the saw.

27.26 Saw operator location

Log and block cutoff saw operators must be positioned so that no part of the operator's body is in line with the saw unless adequate barriers have been installed.

27.27 Saw speeds

Repealed. [B.C. Reg. 312/2003, effective October 29, 2003.]

* See section 4.3 of the OHS Regulation.
27.28 Saw maintenance

(1) A saw must be inspected frequently and maintained in a safe condition.

(2) A dull, badly set, improperly filed or tensioned saw, or an inserted tooth saw with poorly fitting shanks or worn bits, must be removed from service.

(3) A saw must be inspected for cracks and other defects each time the saw is sharpened, and a cracked saw must be removed from service until repaired by a qualified person.

(4) A saw or saw collar damaged by excessive heat or undue stress must be removed from service until inspected and repaired by a qualified person.

27.29 Cracks in circular saws

(1) A circular saw with a crack of any size adjacent to the collar line, or with a crack elsewhere which exceeds the limit specified in Table 27-1, must be removed from service until the crack is repaired and the saw retensioned by a qualified person.

(2) A circular saw with a crack near the periphery which does not exceed the limit specified in Table 27-1 must be removed from service until the crack is repaired or the lengthening of the crack has been arrested by slotting, centre punching, drilling or other effective means, and the saw is retensioned as necessary, by a qualified person.

Table 27-1 Circular saw crack limits

Saw diameterMaximum length of crack
MillimetresInchesMillimetresInches
up to 300up to 12131/2
300 to 61012 to 24251
610 to 91524 to 36381 1/2
915 to 122036 to 48502
1220 to 152548 to 60642 1/2
over 1525over 60763

27.30 Cracks in band saws

(1) A band saw, other than a shake band saw, with a crack exceeding the limit specified in Table 27-2 must be removed from service until the crack is repaired and the saw retensioned by a qualified person.

(2) A band saw, other than a shake band saw, with a crack not exceeding the limit specified in Table 27-2 must be removed from service until the crack is repaired or the lengthening of the crack has been arrested by centre punching or other effective means, and the saw retensioned as necessary, by a qualified person.

(3) A shake band saw with a crack must not be used.

Table 27-2 Band saw crack limits

Band saw widthMaximum length of crack
MillimetresInchesMillimetresInches
up to 125up to 51/10 of saw width1/10 of saw width
125 to 3005 to 12131/2
over 300over 12193/4

27.31 Band saw wheel wear limits

(1) Unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer or a professional engineer, the minimum rim thickness of a cast steel band saw wheel measured 25 mm (1 in) inboard from the rim edge must be

(a) 14 mm (9/16 in) for wheels up to and including 1.8 m (6 ft) diameter,

(b) 16 mm (5/8 in) for wheels over 1.8 m (6 ft) up to and including 2.75 m (9 ft) diameter, and

(c) 17.5 mm (11/16 in) for wheels over 2.75 m (9 ft) diameter.

(2) A band saw wheel over 1.2 m (48 in) diameter must be nondestructively tested for cracks by a qualified person at least once a year.

(3) A cracked wheel or a wheel which has been exposed to excessive heat must be removed from service until the wheel manufacturer, or a professional engineer, has certified it as safe for continued use.

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Log Handling

27.32 Log-haul walkways

Unless clearly impracticable, every log-haul must have at least one walkway

(a) fitted with cleats and handrails, and

(b) of sufficient width to enable workers to stand clear of logs in the log haul.

27.33 Log hauling equipment

(1) The employer must ensure that, when log hauling and similar hoisting equipment is being used, workers are positioned so that they will not be endangered by logs as a result of power or equipment failure, or other similar cause during lifting and lowering operations.

(2) Log hauling and similar hoisting equipment must be equipped with

(a) devices which prevent logs from running back in the event of power failure, and

(b) an emergency stop control by which the operator can stop the equipment.

(3) The emergency stop control must not be capable of being overridden.

27.34 Rolling logs

Provisions must be made to protect workers from rolling logs.

27.35 Barker feed restraints

Logs must be restrained against dangerous movement at the infeed and outfeed sections of a mechanical ring barker.

27.36 Bundle breaking

When wires, strapping, or bundling cables are removed from bundled logs in booming grounds, millyards or dryland sorting areas, the following requirements must be met:

(a) specific written safe work procedures must be developed and followed by all workers involved in the operation;

(b) the load must be restrained to prevent logs or log chunks from rolling off the bundle, or otherwise endangering the workers;

(c) workers must not be allowed beneath a suspended load or equipment.

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Headrigs

27.37 Buffer stops

Substantial stops, preferably with spring, pneumatic, or hydraulic buffers, must be installed at each end of the carriage travel area.

27.38 Locking control levers

The employer must ensure that means are provided and used to eliminate inadvertent operation of the headrig log-turning and carriage-feed controls.

27.39 Carriage track barriers

(1) If a headrig sawyer may be exposed to the hazard of logs, sawn material, or chunks entering the booth or operator's area, the sawyer must be protected by

(a) a substantial barrier between the sawyer and carriage track, extending from the floor of the booth to 60 cm (2 ft) above the rollcase, and

(b) a substantial barrier at the log loading area.

(2) Where necessary to deflect sawn material away from the sawyer, a substantial barrier must be installed between the sawyer booth and the saw.

27.40 Preventing contact

Headrigs must have safety devices which prevent carriage equipment or dogs from contacting the saw or slabber head.

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Chippers, Hogs and Planers

27.41 Hog and chipper chutes

(1) Hog and chipper feed chutes must be equipped with baffles or other effective means to prevent material from being thrown from the equipment.

(2) A worker feeding or clearing a hog or chipper must be restrained by a safety belt and lanyard, unless otherwise protected from falling into the conveyor or machine.

27.42 Hogs, chippers and cutting heads

(1) Until the rotor has stopped turning, no attempt must be made to remove a guard, hood, shroud or inspection plate from a hog, chipper, or cutter head.

(2) A makeshift device that may cause injury to a worker must not be used to brake or slow down a rotor or cutter head.

(3) A mill chipper with a shroud, hood or inspection plate that can be removed before the rotor has stopped must have an effective brake.

(4) Subsection (3) does not apply to a whole log chipper.

(5) A hog or chipper must have a means of determining if rotating parts are in motion or have stopped.

(6) A production planer installed after January 1, 1999 must be equipped with brakes on the heads, and all production planers must have brakes on the heads by January 1, 2000.

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Materials Handling

27.43 Height of chip and sawdust piles

(1) The height of any excavated or unstable face of a chip, hog fuel or sawdust pile must not exceed the safe reach of the mobile equipment being used to handle the material.

(2) Workers unprotected by equipment or barriers must not enter a hazardous area near the face of a chip, hog fuel or sawdust pile.

27.44 Wood products storage

(1) A pile of lumber, veneer, plywood or similar wood product must be erected plumb and level, and be maintained in a stable condition.

(2) Spacing blocks which permit stable piling and unobstructed access for the forks of lift trucks must be placed beneath each pile and between loads.

(3) Veneer loads must be supported by at least 3 spacing blocks of sufficient size to permit stable piling and unobstructed access for the forks of lift trucks, and individual load height must not exceed 1 m (3.3 ft).

(4) Loads of lumber built up for storage or transportation must be stabilized

(a) using stripping material which, where feasible, does not protrude beyond the side of the load or package, or

(b) by other effective means.

(5) If wood products are piled on a foundation that is firm and level

(a) loads of lumber may be piled up to approximately 4.5 m (15 ft) high,

(b) unitized loads of lumber or loads of lumber 15 cm (6 in) or more in width may be piled up to approximately 6 m (20 ft) high, except for the outer pile which must not exceed 4.5 m (15 ft),

(c) if 3 or more loads of any size lumber are cross-tied at each successive level, the loads may be piled up to approximately 11 m (35 ft) high,

(d) veneer piled in the vicinity of passageways or work areas must be adequately supported to prevent falling,

(e) veneer storage piles must not exceed 4.5 m (15 ft) high, and

(f) loads of plywood and similar wood products may be piled up to approximately 6 m (20 ft) high except for the outer stack which must not exceed 4.5 m (15 ft).

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Shake and Shingle Mills

27.45 Shake splitters and cubers

Foot pedal controls on shake splitters and cubers must be fitted with effective guards to prevent inadvertent operation of the equipment.

27.46 Block size and pile height

(1) Blocks must be securely piled not more than one tier high when on the sawyer's table, and no higher than 1.8 m (6 ft) elsewhere.

(2) Blocks must be of a size that does not interfere with the safe loading of the carriage jaws.

27.47 Shingle saws

A shingle machine with a circular head saw must have a sawtooth guard which

(a) projects at least 38 mm (1 1/2 in) beyond the exposed cutting edge of the headsaw,

(b) will prevent the headsaw leaving the arbor should the securing nut fail, and

(c) is located and maintained not more than 13 mm (1/2 in) from the side of the saw.

27.48 Shake resaw arm guards

A hand-fed shake resaw must have a substantial arm guard on the working side of the blade to prevent the operator from contacting the blade.

27.49 Clipper saw guards

(1) Except for the portion that is exposed to trim shingles, a clipper saw must be effectively guarded by a substantial metal guard of at least 16 mm (5/8 in) diameter round stock, or a flat bar of equivalent strength, installed not more than 100 mm (4 in) above the saw and not more than 13 mm (1/2 in) from the plane of the saw.

(2) Clipper saw boards must have substantial finger guards, not less than 130 mm (5 in) long and 32 mm (1 1/4 in) deep, designed and adjusted to prevent the operator's fingers from contacting any exposed saw teeth below the clipper board.

27.50 Clipper saw brakes

(1) An independently motor driven clipper saw must be equipped with an effective braking device, automatically activated when the motor power ceases, and which is capable of bringing the saw to a stop in not more than 20 seconds.

(2) Braking devices must be of a design acceptable to the Board.

27.51 Treadle controls

(1) A shingle machine jaw treadle must be arranged so that the operator must activate the clutch control to start the machine after the treadle is released, and the use of devices to permit the machine to automatically start when the jaw treadle is released is prohibited.

(2) Shingle machine jaw treadles must be constructed of, or covered with, non-skid material.

27.52 Set works and reciprocating parts

(1) Ratchet levers on the set works of a shingle cutting machine must be guarded.

(2) Reciprocating parts of shingle machine carriage drives must be guarded to prevent contact by workers.

27.53 Carriage speed

Conventional shingle machine carriage speed must not exceed 34 strokes per minute.

Note: A conventional shingle machine is a manually operated machine with a circular head saw and carriage and a circular jointer (clipper) saw, for block sizes 40 cm (16 in) and over.

27.54 Saw diameter

The head saw of a conventional shingle machine must have a minimum diameter of 1 m (39 in).

27.55 Unattended machines

The employer must ensure that a worker does not leave a shingle machine or clipper saw unattended if the saw is in motion.

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Disclaimer: The Workers' Compensation Board of B.C. ("WorkSafeBC") publishes the online version Occupational Health and Safety Regulation ("OHS Regulation") in accordance with its mandate under the Workers Compensation Act to provide information and promote public awareness of occupational health and safety matters. The online OHS Regulation is not the official version of the OHS Regulation, which may be purchased from Crown Publications. WorkSafeBC endeavours to update the online OHS Regulation as soon as possible following any legislative amendments. However, WorkSafeBC does not warrant the accuracy or the completeness of the online OHS Regulation, and neither WorkSafeBC nor its board of directors, employees or agents shall be liable to any person for any loss or damage of any nature, whether arising out of negligence or otherwise, arising from the use of the online OHS Regulation. Employers are legally obligated to make a copy of the Workers Compensation Act and the OHS Regulation readily available for review by workers. The circumstances under which WorkSafeBC may consider an employer's providing access to electronic versions of the Act and OHS Regulation to have satisfied this obligation are described in Guideline G-D3-115(2)(f).